What is your immediate goal? To determine if the individuals here are closely related? To go back into Europe?
You will not be able to do any research in Bohemia or Moravia unless you have a location. Do you have any "antique" documents -- baptismal certificates, old letters, etc.?
As for not knowing the language, the vocabulary is very limited. The Bohemian/Moravian records are a mixture of Czech, German, Latin, with a bit of some other language, possibly Polish or Hungarian, every so often. Most of us do not really know these languages very well. But son = syn in Czech, sohn in German. Daughter = dcera in Czech, tochter in German. Mother = matka in Czech, mutter in German. Father = otec in Czech, vater in German. So the only one here that doesn't resember the other two languages is otec.
As for the names changing spelling, I'm helping a friend, and one of the ancestors who lived to be 80 has his name spelled 4 different ways from his baptism, marriage, births of children, and death. Even in US censuses, you see your name misspelled. I've learned for my Sramek line to look at anything that has S M K in it. In your case, the V D V C is common. I'm not so sure about Vidopec, but the first three, definitely. Then you get the feminine version, too. Vodovecova, Vodoveca, etc. If a census taker in the US could misspell "Fleming" about 3 ways, it should not seem unusual for other names. In the Bohemian/Moravian records, you also had Latin and German spellings, so the Czech "Jan" could be "Joannes" in Latin, "Johann" in German. "Vaclav" could be Wenzl, Wentzl, or Waclaw depending on the language used in the record. "Frantisek" could be Franz, Frantz, Franciscus. (I like this name, because in Ancestry I can enter Fran* and get most American variations.)
Oh, let's throw another detail into the mix. "V" is "W" in German, so the names might be "Wodowec" in the records. And another -- frequently the "V" was kind of a preposition, so the name might actually be "Odovec". In other words, if you do find a record in the Bohemian/Moravian records with that name, you have to consider the possibility that it might be yours. And "vdovec" actually means "widower", so it might have been the person's status rather than name.
Now, if you were confused before, it's worse, I'm sure. But there are two things you should take away from here:
1. You need a location, if you want to go back to Bohemian/Moravia. Depending on when they immigrated, the ship's records had it, i.e. after 1895 or so. So when did your ancestor immigrate, where to, and is there a ship's record in Ancestry? If so, give us the link. Do you have any precise/approximate birth dates? Religion? To get anyone to help, you need data like this.
2. Once you have a location, you would need to determine if the records are online at one of the Czech sites. We will help you with that. You can read through other queries, and see how people state that it's taken them two years to learn to read the records. But it's a definite thrill when you discover them. My friend started just a year ago wanting to find the birth records of the group who came to the US. 14 months later, we are back 6 generations, to 1693, and 296 names.
One last point: when you find the first person in the Bohemian/Moravian records, there's what a database person would call a "key". The house number was recorded. If your family did not move around much, it's possible just to look for that house number in the records. It's your "key" to a quick search.
We would encourage you to look for some additional documentation and share it here.
Mary in Omaha, Nebraska