I think he was born in Riga.
You should ask there for a birth record. If this is written in german, you can send it to me.
From medieval days to the beginning of the 20 century an important part of the population in Riga was german speaking. In 1826 the official language there was german. You can read this on the Wikipedia-page for Riga. They had traditional contacts to north german harbour cities like Lübeck or Rostock in Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
My hypothesis: He was born in Riga and went as a boy to e.g. Rostock. (There was a production of cigars). In 1848 he emigrated to the US.
The passenger list never show the birth place, but the place he lived before emigration. In his mind he was from Mecklenburg and this was what he told when he was asked for a census: "from which country you are?"
May be Glockhoff was not his real name, but in this case you will never find anything.