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KLAEHN KORDZ KORT KORTZ

Replies: 10

Re: KLAEHN KORDZ KORT KORTZ

Posted: 2 Dec 2002 9:04PM GMT
Classification: Query
Edited: 7 Nov 2004 3:17AM GMT
Surnames: klaehn,cordz,kordz.cords,kords,
Subject: Re: Klaene surname researcher
Date: Sun, 11 Jul 1999 20:48:08 +0000
From: Dale Sherbourne <sherbournedale@imagina.com>
To: benklaene <BenKlaene@compuserve.com>

benklaene wrote:
>
> Message text written by INTERNET:AnnBergelt@aol.com
> >Hi, Karen (and Ben):
>
> Someone on another rootsweb listed is looking for similar spellings of
> KLAENE. I told him I would give you his e-mail. He's looking forward to
> hearing from you.
>
> sherbournedale@imagina.com
>
> (Dale Sherbourne)
>
> Best wishes Ann>>
> ----------------------- Internet Header --------------------------------
> Sender: AnnBergelt@aol.com<>>
>
> Hello Dale,
>
> The above was sent to me by an someone my husband went to gradeschool with
> here in Cincinnati many years ago. She is a researcher in Florida now,
> and uses the Rootsweb-Hamilton Co. list. She forwarded your name as
> someone interested in Klaene surname.
> I have considerable info on last three or four generations. Ben's
first
> cousin Nick Klaene and I have collected data here and there. Most of info
> on later generations came from another more distant cousin's wife who
> lives in northern KY.
> Nic was contacted by someone on the internet who directed us to a bio in
> "Kentucky and Kentuckians" on a George Klaene, who began a stove foundry
> in Covington KY at turn of century. He was youngest brother to Ben's
> great-grandfather, Henry.
>
> Henry arrived from Bremen in 1864 and settled in Covington. In 1866, his
> widowed mother and four younger brothers came.
> Bio claims they came from Lutten in Duchy of Oldenburg. I haven't gone
> much further. Two of the brothers changed their spelling to KLAINE.
> I've been told that I may find it spelled differently over there. In
> "Germans to America" I find Henry's listing spelled KLAENE. His
> mother's listing two years later was KLANN. Of course, names were
> slaughtered in records continually.
>
> Feel free to contact me if you think I have any information that may help
> you.
>
> Karen Klaene <benklaene@compuserve.com>
> Cincinnati, OH
Subject:
thanks
Date:
Fri, 09 Jul 1999 02:57:10 +0000
From:
Dale Sherbourne <sherbournedale@imagina.com>
To:
"AnnBergelt@aol.com" <AnnBergelt@aol.com>

Thanks for your interest here are some of my search results and other stuff

Hello Mr.Sherbourne !

By realy pure chance I read your query about your ancestor Fritz Klaehn on a
webpage of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
My surname is Klaehn,or correctly Kl<a with two dots on the top>hn ( I think
that
your PC`s character-set can`t create this german letter ) and my father was
born in a town called Roebel about 50km away from Schwerin.
My grandfather's name is Willhelm Klaehn,perhaps Fritz`s brother.
I don`t know much about my grandfather`s roots,but I know that he had many
brothers and sisters.
Perhaps you can give me more information about him and his brothers and
sisters,so I can try to find out something about this issue,so both can be
compared.
I have to say that I never dealt with genealogy so far,so information can
only
come from questioning my relatives.
I also want to point out that the name Klaehn in Germany is rare,so perhaps
it`s
more than a coincidence.

Greetings to the USA : Marco Klaehn from Dortmund,Germany
su000144@access.uni-dortmund.de
Excuse my language-mistakes.

Thanks for your interest
had given up on a response this is just a note to let you know of the reciet
of
your email.
>From the information from my mother my great-grandparents came from the
mecklenburg-sverin area his greatgrand pa was married to a
Henrietta Kords more to come In the future will send some info I have
encountered and hope you can find them usefull and mabe be able to do some
tracking there. yours truly Dale Sherbourne

ubject:
KLAHN / KLAEHN / KLAEHEN / KLAHEN
Fritz; DEU; 1830-
Date:
5 Jul 1999 19:19:56 GMT
From:
Dale Sherbourne <sherbournedale@imagina.com>
Organization:
Posted via RemarQ, http://www.remarQ.com - The
Internet's Discussion Network
Newsgroups:
soc.genealogy.surnames.german,
soc.genealogy.surnames.global

KLAHN / KLAEHN / KLAEHEN / KLAHEN Fritz; DEU; 1830-

Fritz is my great grandfather and was marries to Henriette
Cordt/Kordt/Cords/Korts/Kord/Cord Somewhere Near Swerin Possibly near
Critvitz
or Plate,which I can't find on any maps If you have any possible leads
or
resources that might help me find my gernam connections please contact
me.
sherbournedale@imagina.com

v

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German Genealogy
Mecklenburg

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Contents:

* General Information
* History
* Associations and Societies
* Genealogical and Historical Records
* Gazetteers and Maps
* Bibliography and Literature
* Archives and Libraries
* Miscellaneous
* Other Internet Resources

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[flag]
Flag of Mecklenburg

General Information

* Introduction
If you look at a map of present-day Germany, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
appears as a state in northeastern Germany, bounded on the north by the
Baltic Sea (Ostsee), on the west by Schleswig-Holstein, on the
southwest by Lower Saxony, on the south by Brandenburg, and on the east
by Poland. The state lies in a fertile plain containing many forests
and lakes and is crossed by the Elde, Warnow, and several other rivers.
Prior to 1934, Mecklenburg borders were not the same as they are today.
Territories which were once the Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
and Mecklenburg-Strelitz were united into one State of Mecklenburg in
1934. Then, in 1945, Pomerania, another Prussian province, was split
into two sections. The part west of the Oder River was added to
Mecklenburg, making what is, today, the state of
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

* Political Divisions
Throughout the 1800's, Mecklenburg was divided into the two grand
duchies, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Mecklenburg-Strelitz was further divided into two parts, one on either
side of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. The government was a limited monarchy,
ruled by grand dukes. Each duchy was a separate state, but both bodies
met annually to make common laws and impose common taxes for the whole
of Mecklenburg. Both duchies used the same flag and coat of arms.

Mecklenburg-Schwerin consisted of: The Duchy of Schwerin, The
Principality of Schwerin, The Wenden District of the Duchy of G?strow,
The Lordship of Wismar (Wismar and the surrounding area were under the
rule of Sweden from 1648 to 1803), Rostock District, and The Domain of
Scattered Convents.

Mecklenburg-Strelitz consisted of: Stargard District of the Duchy of
G?strow on the eastern side of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and The
Principality of Ratzeburg on the western side of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

The Dukes in Mecklenburg-Strelitz in the 1800's were as follows:

1794-1816 Karl II.
1816-1860 Georg Friedrich

The Dukes in Mecklenburg-Schwerin in the 1800's were as follows:

1785-1837 Friedrich Franz I.
1837-1842 Paul Friedrich
1842-1883 Friedrich Franz II.

The grand dukes of Mecklenburg Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz were
deposed in 1918. The Mecklenburg-Strelitz line effectively died out.
The current "head" of the Mecklenburg-Schwerin line is Christian
Ludwig, Herzog zu Mecklenburg.

The lands of Mecklenburg were divided into Ritterschaft, Domanium, and
Landschaft. The properties of the knights belonged to the Ritterschaft.
All princely properties belonged to the Domanium. All the cities
belonged to the Landschaft except Rostock and Wismar. These sea ports
had their own special category. The status of individual localities
relative to these three divisions changed often. The divisions also
overlapped each other extensively.

Niekammer's Guter-Addressb?cher of 1908 shows the following division of
lands into districts or counties (Amte) in Mecklenburg, some with
overlapping jurisdiction as indicated:

o D.A. = Domanialamt or Domaenenamt (District of the Grand Duchy or
crownland, the revenue of which goes to the reigning sovereign).
+ Boizenburg (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Bukow (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Butrow (also a city district)
+ Crivitz (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Dargun (also a city district)
+ Doberan (also a city district)
+ Domitz (also a city district)
+ Gadebusch (also part of the Ritterschaft and a city district)
+ Grabow (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Grevesmuhlen (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ G?strow (also part of the Ritterschaft and a city district)
+ Hagenow (also a city district)
+ Lubz (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Meustadt (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Ribnitz (also part of the Ritterschaft and a city district)

o R. A. = Ritterschaft Amte (Knight district). Ritter means knight,
a term of elevated free status, originally claimed for performance
of military service to a sovereign; privileged "noble" rank. A
"Rittergut" (estate of a knight) was formerly owned only by those
of nobility. Later others who did not belong to families of
nobility were permitted to acquire "Ritterg?ter."
+ Gnoien (also a city district)
+ Goldberg (also a city district)
+ Ivenak (also a city district)
+ Mecklenburg (also a city district)
+ Neukalen (also a city district)
+ Plau (also a city district)
+ Sternberg (also a city district)

o StSdte (city) districts which were not also seats of D.A. or R.A
were as follows:
+ Malchin
+ Parchim
+ Ponzlin
+ Rostock
+ Tessin

o K.A. - Klosteramt (Monastery District). A Kloster is a cloister or
monastery. Klosterg?ter were under the jurisdiction of the
Catholic Church.
+ Amt Dobbertin
+ Amt Malchow
+ Amt Ribnitz
+ Kloster zum Heiligen Kreuz

o Another minor land district was the Rostocker which included:
+ Amt Ribnitz
+ Amt Schwaan

* Religious Divisions:

Mecklenburg was predominantly Evangelical Lutheran after 1549, with
some Jewish families living throughout the duchies. There were a few
Catholic areas, with the Catholic church controlling some of the land.

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History

Early people began to colonize the Mecklenburg area about ten thousand years
ago in the latter part of the Ice Age. The lives of the people in these
early times were geared towards hunting and they had a great dependence on
animals. Their tools were made from flint, bone and horn. Teutonic peoples
inhabited the Mecklenburg area in the first centuries of the Christian era,
but early in the 6th century, it was seized by various Slavic tribes. The
early name for the Mecklenburg area was Vandalia and later it was called
Wendenland. The land was not cultivated during the Slavic times, but was
covered everywhere with primeval forest. It was isolated and culturally cut
off from the rest of Germany.

The Mecklenburg region was conquered by Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, in
the latter half of the 12th century and the land was first opened up by
Henry through a combination of missionary work and colonization. In 1348 it
was elevated to a duchy. In 1549 Lutheranism was recognized as the State
religion. Then, in 1621, Mecklenburg was split into two duchies:
Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg -G?strow (changed to
Mecklenburg-Strelitz in 1701). Mecklenburg-Schwerin was about the size of
the state of Connecticut. Mecklenburg-Strelitz was about as large as the
state of Rhode Island in the United States, and was divided into two parts,
one on either side of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

Between 1733 and 1755 the estate owners of Mecklenburg increased their land
holdings. They were backed by the Kaiser of the Holy Roman Empire in this
effort. By the Convention of Rostock in 1755 in Mecklenburg Schwerin, all
power was placed in the hands of the Duke, nobles, and upper classes. The
lower classes had no voice. Land was held under a Feudal system. From 1759
to 1764 all of Mecklenburg was occupied by Prussia. Unlike the surrounding
areas, however, Mecklenburg managed to remain autonomous for another
century.

In Mecklenburg during the 1700s and 1800s a type of Feudalism existed known
as "Inherited Serfdom". The land owners controlled the economy and ruled
their estates with absolute authority. The peasants were dependant entirely
on the nobles who could even buy and sell them with or without their
property. The tax rate on the peasants had to be reviewed every two to three
years, and was usually increased at that time. They could not acquire any
more land than they already had. Their Landlords produced crops for export
from their vast estates by using the labor of these bonded peasants,
servants and laborers. The landlords were known as "Landed Junkers". his
word comes from "Jung Herr" which means "young noble".

By the 1800's the Landlords had driven away more and more peasants with
their highhanded ways. They then incorporated those peasants' plots into
their estates, and crop production expanded further. This callous robbery of
the peasant properties was known as "peasant seizure". Ten thousand peasants
lost their holdings in this way. In Mecklenburg, where the Nobility owned
almost all of the land and dwellings, the number of estimated peasant
foreclosures went from 2,490 to nearly 12,000 by 1800 AD. The former
peasants who ad land left held only small holdings which ensured little more
than a bare livelihood for themselves.

In 1807 Baron von Stein tried to carry through a reform of the Feudal
system. He felt the peasants' and laborers' lot had to be improved. He did
not want to abolish the large Landholders, but they were to be limited in
their political and administrative powers and to improve the state of their
workers. At that time, workers worked from sunrise to sunset for a pfennig
an hour, a very small amount. he value of goods (potatoes, corn, wood, etc.)
was deducted from that and most of their work was paid for by these goods.
Women and children performed heavy work. Baron von Stein's reform said that
peasants could now change their place of residence without permission, and
children were allowed to learn a trade. But the Landlords ought these
progressive measures, refused to implement them, and the edict of Baron von
Stein was never executed.

>From 1806 to 1813 the country suffered great hardship and destruction. This
period came to be known to all Mecklenburgers as the "Franzosentid" ( period
of French occupation). Robbery and pillage became commonplace. Both duchies,
Mecklenburg Schwerin and Mecklenburg Strelitz, were forced to join the
Confederation of the Rhine under Napoleon's protectorate. Of the more than
2,000 men who were conscripted from Mecklenburg to take part in Napoleon's
campaign against Russia, less than one hundred came home again.

After Napoleon's defeat in Russia, the dukes of both Mecklenburgs were among
the first to renounce the alliance with France. In the War of German
Liberation which followed (1813-1815), Mecklenburg played a significant part
in defeating Napoleon and liberating Germany from France. In 1815, the dukes
of Mecklenburg were elevated to "Grand Dukes", and Mecklenburg became a
Grand Duchy. With the coming of peace, however, there also came a period of
economic depression which lasted until the early 1820s.

Legally, serfdom was abolished in Mecklenburg in 1820 and the peasants were
freed from their obligations to land owners. But this worsened the
conditions for most peasants because the land owners were freed , at the
same time, of any obligations under feudal law to provide their tenants with
any means of supporting themselves, thus leaving the peasants in even
greater poverty. The servant of a noble landowner was not even permitted to
marry unless his master gave him permission and a place to live.

Those villagers who were without land became cottagers or gardeners.
Eventually they were simply known as day laborers (Tageloehners) and lived
in poverty. They were deprived almost entirely of their earnings and
thereafter were forced to work for a starvation wage on the Junker estates.
They traveled the countryside, moving from estate to estate as the land
owner required their labor for plowing, planting or harvesting crops. The
life they lived gave no possibility of resistance in an effort to better
their condition.

Many peasants and labourers left Mecklenburg and emigrated to other
countries s their conditions became unbearable. In the early 1840s, the
liberal bourgeois party began to speak out against the noble landowners and
the special privileges granted them. By 1848 there were secret meetings in
many Mecklenburg towns of reform societies and a political revolution was a
distinct possibility. However the revolution did not have enough support and
eventually failed. The workers' situation in Mecklenburg remained bleak
until, under the Soviet Military Administration, in October 1945 there was a
land reform and the large estates and their landholders disappeared. The
government took over their land.

The Mecklenburg Duchies joined the German Empire in 1871 and after World War
I were declared states of the new German Republic. In 1934 they were united
into a single German state of Mecklenburg. After World War II Mecklenburg
became part of the Soviet Zone. The state was dissolved in 1952, when East
Germany was reorganized into districts. The area remained behind the Iron
Curtain and part of East Germany until 1990 when Germany was unified and the
state of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania was created.

The dukes of Mecklenburg-Schwerin had their castle (Schlo§) and main
residence in the city of Schwerin. The seat of government and main home for
the dukes of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was in Neustrelitz. Princess Sophie
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz became Queen Charlotte of England in 1761.
Genealogical data concerning the house of Mecklenburg can be found on the
Internet Gotha, and some of its members can also be found in the royals
databases at Hull and PSU.

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Associations and Societies

* Genealogical Associations and Societies
* Historical Associations and Societies
* Other Associations and Societies

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Genealogical and Historical Records

* Church Records

The best source for genealogical information and family research in
Mecklenburg is the church records. Church records, also called
Kirchenb?cher, are particularly valuable in Mecklenburg because the
civil authorities did not begin registering births, marriages, and
deaths until after 1876. Generally recorded at the time of the event,
parish records contain births, baptisms, marriages, confirmations and
deaths. The data recorded in these records varied over time. Later
records usually have more information than early ones.

The Mecklenburg church records were microfilmed by the Genealogical
Society of Utah in 1951 and they are all available at the Family
History Center in Salt Lake City, Utah. Copies of these microfilms are
available for your research at local Family History Centers all over
the world. Copies of these microfilms are available for use in
Ratzeburg as well.

Domarchiv Ratzeburg
Domhof 35
D-23909 Ratzeburg

The church records of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz up
until 1875 are in Schwerin and are available at the archives:

Mecklenburgisches Kirchenbuchamt
M?nzstr. 8
D-19010 Schwerin

To find the church records for a given town, you will need to locate
the parish for that town. You can do this at a Family History Center.
D.A. Endler and Edmund Albrecht have published a Mecklenburgs
familiengeschichtliche Quellen which contains an alphabetical list of
all localities in both Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz
with their parish names. This index is available on Fiche #6000834/1-2
and should be at most Family History Centers. It is also available on
microfilm (reel#0496473, item 8).

* Civil Records

Civil Registration was introduced in Mecklenburg on January 1, 1876.
Civil registration records contain much the same information as that
found in church records, usually in greater detail. An advantage of
civil registration is that persons of all religions in the town are
found in one register. Information from civil registers after 1876 can
be obtained by writing to the Civil Registry Office (Standesamt) of the
town where your ancestor lived.

Official State calendars exist for each year from 1777 in
Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and from 1790 in Mecklenburg-Strelitz. A few of
these calendars are available through the Family History Centers.
However the most complete sets are probably held by the

Mecklenburgische Landesbibliothek
Am Dom 2
D-19055 Schwerin, Germany

The surviving records of the grand duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and
Mecklenburg-Strelitz are both on deposit at

Staatsarchiv Schwerin
Graf-Schack-Allee 2
D-19053 Schwerin, Germany

* Other Primary Records

o Census Census for Mecklenburg-Schwerin is available at the Family
History Centers for 1704, 1751, 1819, 1867, 1890 and 1900. There
are also a few early census records for the Duchy of Mecklenburg
for 1633-1634, 1677, and 1689 (microfilm #068,934).

There are no preserved census records for Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Only a statistical summary is available.

The 1867, 1890, and 1900 census information for
Mecklenburg-Schwerin is available on microfilm from the Family
History Center libraries. The 1867 census is on 357 microfilms,
the 1890 census is on 92 microfilms, and the 1900 census is on 755
microfilms. In order to use these films, you will need to know the
town your family was from. Use your Family History Center
Catalogue either on microfiche or computer to find out the correct
film numbers.

The 1819 Mecklenburg-Schwerin census is available from the Family
History Center libraries and is on 60 rolls of microfilm. This
census includes for each person the sex of the person, his/her
given and surname, the year and day of birth, the birthplace, the
parish to which the birthplace belonged, the family status or
occupation, property owned, how long he/she has lived there,
whether single or married, the family's religion, and general
comments. After the head of household, the wife is named
(sometimes giving her birth name), next the children, then
servants and any boarders, etc. The Immigrant Genealogical Society
will search the indexes for you and provide you with surname
information.

o Marriage Records

Kopulationsregister aus Mecklenburgischen Kirchenb?chern von 1751
bis 1800 by Franz Shubert (Family History Library 943.17 B4s
ser.6). This 37 volume series of marriage abstracts lists marriage
records of Mecklenburg from parish registers covering roughly
1751-1800. The Immigrant Genealogical Society will search the
marriage abstracts for you and provide you with information. There
are 13 index volumes.

o Land Records

Grundbesitzlisten Auf Feldflurkarten Mecklenburgs by Franz
Shubert. Transcribed names of Landowners in the state of
Mecklenburg in the year 1727. Family History Center film #1441034,
item 8 and #1181901, item 9.

o School Records

Names of students taking entrance exams in Mecklenburg schools in
the 18th century. Abiturienten mecklenburgisher Schulen im 19.
Jahrhunderrt (FHL 943.17 J2sf) by Franz Shubert, in two volumes.
Includes schools in Friedland, Neubrandenburg, Neustrelitz,
Doberan, G?strow, Parchim, Ratzeburg, Rostock, Schwerin, Waren,
Wismar, B?tzow, Ludwigslust, Malchin, and Rostock. Students of
theology, medicine, law, and military are included. Birth dates
and places of origin for many students are given. Each volume has
an alphabetical place, occupation, and name index.

o Citizen Registers

Citizen Registers from Mecklenburg are included in B?rgerb?cher
aus Mecklenburg by Franz Schubert (FHL 943.17 X2s). Vol. L2
includes citizens from Schwerin from documents from the years
1560, 1586, 1855, 1622, 1672, 1726, 1770, 1832, 1859, 1869, and
1887. Vol. M1 includes Neubrandenburg 1676-1893. Vol. A1 includes
citizens from Stavenhagen 1724-1741 and 1772-1918.

o Lineage Books

The Deutsches Geschlechterbuch, the German Lineage Book series
published by C.A. Starke Verlag, in Limburg, Germany contains four
volumes that pertain to Mecklenburg (volumes 57, 74, 88, and 105).
These books can be found at the Family History Center and larger
libraries in the United States and Canada. The four Mecklenburg
volumes are also on microfilm at the Family History Centers. In
addition to the four regional volumes mentioned, the general index
also lists 52 general volumes which should also be checked for
information on a given name or lineage. These include the first 17
volumes of the series which were Genealogical Handbooks of Common
(non-noble) Families. Only volumes 1 through 110 have been
microfilmed.

* Secondary Records

o The Roots Surname List

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Gazetteers and Maps

* Gazetteers

o D.A. Endler and Edmund Albrecht have published a Mecklenburgs
Familiengeschichtliche Quellen which contains an alphabetical list
of all localities in both Mecklenburg-Schwerin and
Mecklenburg-Strelitz with their parish names. This index is
available on Fiche #6000834/1-2 and should be at most Family
History Centers. It is also available on microfilm (reel#0496473,
item 8).

o Geographish-Statistisch-Historisches Handbuch Des Meklenburger
Lander by Gustav Hempel, G?strow: Edmund Frege, 1837-1843. (FHL
microfilm #1181668, item 5). This directory lists many small
villages not included in other available gazetteers.

* Atlases and Maps

o Historical Map of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

o ATLAS OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE 1892. This atlas contains enlarged
reproductions of 24 maps published in 1892 by Verlag des
Bibliographischen Instituts, Leipzig and Vienna. In addition to
maps of the German provinces, it contains a map of the entire 1892
German Empire (1:4,600,000). Map scale of the provinces varies
from 1:850,000 to 1:1,700.000. Small towns and hamlets are not on
the maps. Available through Genealogy Unlimited

o Detailed Maps of Germany including Mecklenburg area. 1: 100 000
scale from Haupe & Co. Ausflugskarte Series, or 1:200 000 scale
from Mairs Geographischer Verlag.

o ROAD ATLAS -- GERMANY (Deutschland) by RV Verlag. There are 229
pages of maps, a 101-page town-name index listing over 40,000 town
names, and new postal codes for all towns in the index. Town names
and text are in German. Available through Genealogy Unlimited

o Other Map Information

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Bibliography and Literature

* Bibliography
Literaturspiegel

* Literature
Fritz Reuter, known as the greatest of all Low German dialect writers,
was born in Mecklenburg. Two of his books which have been translated
into English describe the life of the common people in Mecklenburg
during the first half of the 19th century. Both books are available for
purchase by special order from Amazon Books or check with your local
library. They are also available through the inter-library loan
program. (For example, both books are available from the main branch of
the Los Angeles Public Library.)

SEED-TIME AND HARVEST; or During My Apprenticeship was translated from
Reuter's Ut Mine Stromtid, his most famous work. It is the story of
three groups of rural peasants in Mecklenburg--those who work for the
nobility on large estates, those who are tenant farmers, and those who
live in small villages. This book is a "must" if you want to understand
the life of these people.

WHEN THE FRENCH WERE HERE; or In the Year 1813 was translated from
Reuter's Ut de Franzosentid. The story takes place in a small village
in Mecklenburg during the French occupation and the ensuing War of
German Liberation. Mecklenburg suffered greatly during 1813 because of
the ravages and plundering of French troops.

* Genealogical Works
o Dorfsippenb?cher published in 1938 for the village of Boitin is
available on microfilm at the Family History Centers.

o Ortsfamilienb?cher: see our List of Ortsfamilienb?cher

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Archives and Libraries

Archives:
The following list of archives in Mecklenburg Vorpommern is divided into
four categories:

1. first the main archives or state archives (Landeschauptarchiv), then
2. the administrative district archives (Landesarchiv), next
3. the area archives (Landkreis) which are similar to county archives in
the United States, the city archives (Stadt), and the University
archives, and finally
4. the church archives.

1. State Archives

Staatsarchiv,
Graf-Schack-Allee 2
D-19053 Schwerin

2. District Archives

Vorpommersches Landesarchiv,
Martin-Andersen-Nexs-Platz 1
D-17489 Greifswald

3. Area, City, and University Archives
o Landkreis Bad Doberan Kreisarchiv, August-Bebel-Str. 3, D-18209
Bad Doberan

o Landkreis Demmin Kreisarchiv , Adolf-Pompe-Stra§e 12-15, D-17109
Demmin

o Stadtarchiv Greifswald, Arndtstra§e 2, D-17489 Greifswald

o UniversitStsarchiv Greifswald, Domstr. 11, D-17489 Greifswald

o Landkreis G?strow Kreisarchiv , D-18273 G?strow

o Landkreis Ludwigslust Kresiarchiv , Alexandrienstr. 576, D-19288
Ludwigslust

o Landkreis Mecklenburg-Strelitz Kreisarchiv, Bienenweg 1, D-17033
Neubrandenburg

o Stadtarchiv Neustrelitz, Stadtverwaltung, Markt 1, D-17235
Neustrelitz

o Landkreis M?ritz Kreisarchiv , Kietzstr. 10/11, D-17192 Waren

o Stadtarchiv Waren, Neuer Markt, D-17192 Waren

o Stadtarchiv Neubrandenburg, Stadtverwaltung, Friedrich-Engels-Ring
53, D-17033 Neubrandenburg

o Landkreis Nordvorpommern Kreisarchiv Grimmen, Bahnhofstra§e 12/13,
D-18507 Grimmen

o Landkreis Nordwestmecklenburg Kreisarchiv , Bsrzower Weg 1,
D-23936 Grevesm?hlen

o Landkreis Ostvorpommern Kreisarchiv , Demminer Str. 71-74, D-17389
Anklam

o Landkreis Parchim Kreisarchiv, Moltkeplatz 2, D-19370 Parchim,
Postfach 53 und 54, D-19361 Parchim

o Stadtarchiv Parchim, Putlitzer Str. 56, D-19370 Parchim

o Stadtarchiv Rostock, Archiv der Hansestadt Rostock, Hinter dem
Rathaus 5, D-18055 Rostock

o UniversitStsarchiv Rostock, UniversitStsplatz 1, D-18055 Rostock

o Landkreis R?gen Kreisarchiv , Industriestra§e 4, D-18528 Bergen

o Stadtarchiv Schwerin, Platz der Jugend 12-14, D-19053 Schwerin

o Central Land Archives, Grundbucharchiv Schwerin, L?beckerstr. 287,
D-19059 Schwerin

o Stadtarchiv Stralsund, Badenstr. 13, D-18439 Stralsund

o Landkreis Uecker-Randow Kreisarchiv , Am Markt 1, D-17309 Pasewalk

o Stadtarchiv Wismar, Vor dem F?rstenhof, D-23966 Wismar

4. Church Archives
o Mecklenburgisches Kirchenbuchamt, M?nzstr. 8, D-19010 Schwerin

o Domarchiv Ratzeburg, Domhof 35, D-23909 Ratzeburg

Libraries

* Mecklenburgische Landesbibliothek (District Library), Am Dom 2, D-19055
Schwerin, Germany

* LDS Family History Centers
Family History Centers in Europe

Family History Centers in the United States.

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Miscellaneous

* Regional Publishers and Booksellers
List of Publishers and Bookstores

* Emigration waves

After 1850, Mecklenburg had the third highest emigration count in
Europe, superceded only by Ireland and Galicia ( land which is
currently Poland and the Ukraine). 261,000 Mecklenburgers left their
home country (the Grand duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and
Mecklenburg-Strelitz) between 1820 and 1890. Many people, especially
those from the lower social classes, did not have any prospects or
future in Mecklenburg.

Between 1850 and 1890 approximately 146,000 Mecklenburgers emigrated
overseas, most going to the United States of America, but some also
going to South America, Australia, and other countries. Between 1820
and 1890 those going overseas accounted for two thirds of all the
emigrants from Mecklenburg. The defeat of the civil-democratic
revolution in 1848/49 and the return of the old social and political
problems gave fresh impetus to this emigration movement.

This loss of population was most prevalent from the so-called flat or
farm land. 88.5 % of all emigrants came from rural areas. Most of them
came from the manor houses of noble and titled big land-owners. These
were the people who had the most compelling reasons for leaving
Mecklenburg. This was mostly due to the miserable social conditions
caused by the right of establishment rules which existed almost
unchanged between 1820 and 1860.

In 1861, a Mecklenburg historian, Ernst Boll, explained the right of
abode and right of establishment this way: "a Mecklenburger does not
belong to the country as a whole as far as his home is concerned.
Rather, he belongs to the one city or village that he happens to be
born in, or to the city or village where he has received the right of
establishment" from the landowner.

These conditions came about when serfdom was annulled in Mecklenburg in
1820/21. At that time, many landowners took the opportunity to get rid
of most of their permanent day laborers who were now considered
personally free according to the law. They began to run their lands
with a minimum of permanent workers. The landowners did this so that
they would not have to pay for any laborers who were injured or take
care of them when they grew old. It was very difficult for day-laborers
who were thrown out to find permanent work elsewhere because a new
employer did not want to give them the "right of establishment" and
have to be responsible for them.

The granting of the right to marry also depended on the granting of the
right of establishment, and all subjects needed permission to marry
before they could have a family. A man or woman who did not have the
right of establishment could never start a home. A lot of people that
worked as needed paid laborers were refused the right of establishment
by the ruling class for their whole lives. They were given only a
limited right to residence - only for as long as they had work. Many
Mecklenburgers were, in effect, homeless in their own country.

Therefore it is no surprise that tens of thousands decided to emigrate.
In fact, the knights and landowners encouraged emigration at times. The
loss of population in rural areas grew larger and larger. While there
still was a population growth of 55,000 people between 1830 and 1850
despite the emigration, new births could not make up for the high
number of emigrants between 1850 and 1905. The rural population dropped
by 25,000.

After the German Empire was founded in 1871, industrialization spread
and some cities expanded rapidly. The number of people that emigrated
overseas decreased, and internal migration increased. More people that
were willing to emigrate went to cities and industrial towns outside of
Mecklenburg, such as the areas of Berlin and Hamburg rather than to
America.

In 1900 approximately 224,692 people who were Mecklenburgers by birth
lived outside of their home country. That was almost one third of the
Mecklenburg total population. On December 1, 1900 there were 53,902
emigrants from Mecklenburg-Schwerin living in Hamburg-Altona.

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Other WWW Internet resources

* Mecklenburg-Vorpommern World GenWeb page. Research help, information,
name list and querie pages

* Mecklenburg City Breaks. Historic city of Wismar

* Groth, Tarnow of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Groth family genealogy

* Garling Home pages. Specialist in Mestlin/Ruest, includes names and
pictures in that area

* Parchim in Mecklenburg Includes many pictures from Parchim area

* Hofmann Family home page Includes pictures from Mecklenburg

* Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Information. Includes pictures

* Mecklenburg Internet Service System. Includes links to other
Mecklenburg pages as well as a list of people that have internet
service and their internet addresses (in German)

* Descendants of Johann Prange, Prange Family home page

* Carol Bowen home page Goosmann/Gohsman genealogy

* Mecklenburg Flags and Crests Includes explanation and reason for
symbols

* Rostock-Online. History as well as current information and pictures of
Rostock

* Mecklenburg Vorpommern Highlights. Includes writeups of towns and
pictures

* 1000 Years of Mecklenburg. Black and white pictures and detailed
explanations of Mecklenburg landmarks

* Das Staatliche Museum Schwerin. Tour the state museum, includes
pictures of exhibits

* Current Information on Mecklenburg Vorpommern Theater, art, vacation
spots, natural resources (in German). Includes pictures.

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Flag source: FOTW Flags Of The World website at http://flags.cesi.it/flags/,
Artist: Zeljko Heimer, zheimer@public.srce.hr
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Carol Gohsman Bowen contributed this page.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Last update: 17-Aug-97 (mcb)
Please forward any comments and additions to this WWW-Page to:
Carol Gohsman Bowen or WebMaster

[Genealogy Home] [What's New] [General Help] [Regional Research]
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German Genealogy
Mecklenburg

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Contents:

* General Information
* History
* Associations and Societies
* Genealogical and Historical Records
* Gazetteers and Maps
* Bibliography and Literature
* Archives and Libraries
* Miscellaneous
* Other Internet Resources

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[flag]
Flag of Mecklenburg

General Information

* Introduction
If you look at a map of present-day Germany, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
appears as a state in northeastern Germany, bounded on the north by the
Baltic Sea (Ostsee), on the west by Schleswig-Holstein, on the
southwest by Lower Saxony, on the south by Brandenburg, and on the east
by Poland. The state lies in a fertile plain containing many forests
and lakes and is crossed by the Elde, Warnow, and several other rivers.
Prior to 1934, Mecklenburg borders were not the same as they are today.
Territories which were once the Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
and Mecklenburg-Strelitz were united into one State of Mecklenburg in
1934. Then, in 1945, Pomerania, another Prussian province, was split
into two sections. The part west of the Oder River was added to
Mecklenburg, making what is, today, the state of
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

* Political Divisions
Throughout the 1800's, Mecklenburg was divided into the two grand
duchies, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Mecklenburg-Strelitz was further divided into two parts, one on either
side of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. The government was a limited monarchy,
ruled by grand dukes. Each duchy was a separate state, but both bodies
met annually to make common laws and impose common taxes for the whole
of Mecklenburg. Both duchies used the same flag and coat of arms.

Mecklenburg-Schwerin consisted of: The Duchy of Schwerin, The
Principality of Schwerin, The Wenden District of the Duchy of G?strow,
The Lordship of Wismar (Wismar and the surrounding area were under the
rule of Sweden from 1648 to 1803), Rostock District, and The Domain of
Scattered Convents.

Mecklenburg-Strelitz consisted of: Stargard District of the Duchy of
G?strow on the eastern side of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and The
Principality of Ratzeburg on the western side of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

The Dukes in Mecklenburg-Strelitz in the 1800's were as follows:

1794-1816 Karl II.
1816-1860 Georg Friedrich

The Dukes in Mecklenburg-Schwerin in the 1800's were as follows:

1785-1837 Friedrich Franz I.
1837-1842 Paul Friedrich
1842-1883 Friedrich Franz II.

The grand dukes of Mecklenburg Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz were
deposed in 1918. The Mecklenburg-Strelitz line effectively died out.
The current "head" of the Mecklenburg-Schwerin line is Christian
Ludwig, Herzog zu Mecklenburg.

The lands of Mecklenburg were divided into Ritterschaft, Domanium, and
Landschaft. The properties of the knights belonged to the Ritterschaft.
All princely properties belonged to the Domanium. All the cities
belonged to the Landschaft except Rostock and Wismar. These sea ports
had their own special category. The status of individual localities
relative to these three divisions changed often. The divisions also
overlapped each other extensively.

Niekammer's Guter-Addressb?cher of 1908 shows the following division of
lands into districts or counties (Amte) in Mecklenburg, some with
overlapping jurisdiction as indicated:

o D.A. = Domanialamt or Domaenenamt (District of the Grand Duchy or
crownland, the revenue of which goes to the reigning sovereign).
+ Boizenburg (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Bukow (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Butrow (also a city district)
+ Crivitz (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Dargun (also a city district)
+ Doberan (also a city district)
+ Domitz (also a city district)
+ Gadebusch (also part of the Ritterschaft and a city district)
+ Grabow (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Grevesmuhlen (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ G?strow (also part of the Ritterschaft and a city district)
+ Hagenow (also a city district)
+ Lubz (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Meustadt (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Ribnitz (also part of the Ritterschaft and a city district)

o R. A. = Ritterschaft Amte (Knight district). Ritter means knight,
a term of elevated free status, originally claimed for performance
of military service to a sovereign; privileged "noble" rank. A
"Rittergut" (estate of a knight) was formerly owned only by those
of nobility. Later others who did not belong to families of
nobility were permitted to acquire "Ritterg?ter."
+ Gnoien (also a city district)
+ Goldberg (also a city district)
+ Ivenak (also a city district)
+ Mecklenburg (also a city district)
+ Neukalen (also a city district)
+ Plau (also a city district)
+ Sternberg (also a city district)

o StSdte (city) districts which were not also seats of D.A. or R.A
were as follows:
+ Malchin
+ Parchim
+ Ponzlin
+ Rostock
+ Tessin

o K.A. - Klosteramt (Monastery District). A Kloster is a cloister or
monastery. Klosterg?ter were under the jurisdiction of the
Catholic Church.
+ Amt Dobbertin
+ Amt Malchow
+ Amt Ribnitz
+ Kloster zum Heiligen Kreuz

o Another minor land district was the Rostocker which included:
+ Amt Ribnitz
+ Amt Schwaan

* Religious Divisions:

Mecklenburg was predominantly Evangelical Lutheran after 1549, with
some Jewish families living throughout the duchies. There were a few
Catholic areas, with the Catholic church controlling some of the land.

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History

Early people began to colonize the Mecklenburg area about ten thousand years
ago in the latter part of the Ice Age. The lives of the people in these
early times were geared towards hunting and they had a great dependence on
animals. Their tools were made from flint, bone and horn. Teutonic peoples
inhabited the Mecklenburg area in the first centuries of the Christian era,
but early in the 6th century, it was seized by various Slavic tribes. The
early name for the Mecklenburg area was Vandalia and later it was called
Wendenland. The land was not cultivated during the Slavic times, but was
covered everywhere with primeval forest. It was isolated and culturally cut
off from the rest of Germany.

The Mecklenburg region was conquered by Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, in
the latter half of the 12th century and the land was first opened up by
Henry through a combination of missionary work and colonization. In 1348 it
was elevated to a duchy. In 1549 Lutheranism was recognized as the State
religion. Then, in 1621, Mecklenburg was split into two duchies:
Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg -G?strow (changed to
Mecklenburg-Strelitz in 1701). Mecklenburg-Schwerin was about the size of
the state of Connecticut. Mecklenburg-Strelitz was about as large as the
state of Rhode Island in the United States, and was divided into two parts,
one on either side of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

Between 1733 and 1755 the estate owners of Mecklenburg increased their land
holdings. They were backed by the Kaiser of the Holy Roman Empire in this
effort. By the Convention of Rostock in 1755 in Mecklenburg Schwerin, all
power was placed in the hands of the Duke, nobles, and upper classes. The
lower classes had no voice. Land was held under a Feudal system. From 1759
to 1764 all of Mecklenburg was occupied by Prussia. Unlike the surrounding
areas, however, Mecklenburg managed to remain autonomous for another
century.

In Mecklenburg during the 1700s and 1800s a type of Feudalism existed known
as "Inherited Serfdom". The land owners controlled the economy and ruled
their estates with absolute authority. The peasants were dependant entirely
on the nobles who could even buy and sell them with or without their
property. The tax rate on the peasants had to be reviewed every two to three
years, and was usually increased at that time. They could not acquire any
more land than they already had. Their Landlords produced crops for export
from their vast estates by using the labor of these bonded peasants,
servants and laborers. The landlords were known as "Landed Junkers". his
word comes from "Jung Herr" which means "young noble".

By the 1800's the Landlords had driven away more and more peasants with
their highhanded ways. They then incorporated those peasants' plots into
their estates, and crop production expanded further. This callous robbery of
the peasant properties was known as "peasant seizure". Ten thousand peasants
lost their holdings in this way. In Mecklenburg, where the Nobility owned
almost all of the land and dwellings, the number of estimated peasant
foreclosures went from 2,490 to nearly 12,000 by 1800 AD. The former
peasants who ad land left held only small holdings which ensured little more
than a bare livelihood for themselves.

In 1807 Baron von Stein tried to carry through a reform of the Feudal
system. He felt the peasants' and laborers' lot had to be improved. He did
not want to abolish the large Landholders, but they were to be limited in
their political and administrative powers and to improve the state of their
workers. At that time, workers worked from sunrise to sunset for a pfennig
an hour, a very small amount. he value of goods (potatoes, corn, wood, etc.)
was deducted from that and most of their work was paid for by these goods.
Women and children performed heavy work. Baron von Stein's reform said that
peasants could now change their place of residence without permission, and
children were allowed to learn a trade. But the Landlords ought these
progressive measures, refused to implement them, and the edict of Baron von
Stein was never executed.

>From 1806 to 1813 the country suffered great hardship and destruction. This
period came to be known to all Mecklenburgers as the "Franzosentid" ( period
of French occupation). Robbery and pillage became commonplace. Both duchies,
Mecklenburg Schwerin and Mecklenburg Strelitz, were forced to join the
Confederation of the Rhine under Napoleon's protectorate. Of the more than
2,000 men who were conscripted from Mecklenburg to take part in Napoleon's
campaign against Russia, less than one hundred came home again.

After Napoleon's defeat in Russia, the dukes of both Mecklenburgs were among
the first to renounce the alliance with France. In the War of German
Liberation which followed (1813-1815), Mecklenburg played a significant part
in defeating Napoleon and liberating Germany from France. In 1815, the dukes
of Mecklenburg were elevated to "Grand Dukes", and Mecklenburg became a
Grand Duchy. With the coming of peace, however, there also came a period of
economic depression which lasted until the early 1820s.

Legally, serfdom was abolished in Mecklenburg in 1820 and the peasants were
freed from their obligations to land owners. But this worsened the
conditions for most peasants because the land owners were freed , at the
same time, of any obligations under feudal law to provide their tenants with
any means of supporting themselves, thus leaving the peasants in even
greater poverty. The servant of a noble landowner was not even permitted to
marry unless his master gave him permission and a place to live.

Those villagers who were without land became cottagers or gardeners.
Eventually they were simply known as day laborers (Tageloehners) and lived
in poverty. They were deprived almost entirely of their earnings and
thereafter were forced to work for a starvation wage on the Junker estates.
They traveled the countryside, moving from estate to estate as the land
owner required their labor for plowing, planting or harvesting crops. The
life they lived gave no possibility of resistance in an effort to better
their condition.

Many peasants and labourers left Mecklenburg and emigrated to other
countries s their conditions became unbearable. In the early 1840s, the
liberal bourgeois party began to speak out against the noble landowners and
the special privileges granted them. By 1848 there were secret meetings in
many Mecklenburg towns of reform societies and a political revolution was a
distinct possibility. However the revolution did not have enough support and
eventually failed. The workers' situation in Mecklenburg remained bleak
until, under the Soviet Military Administration, in October 1945 there was a
land reform and the large estates and their landholders disappeared. The
government took over their land.

The Mecklenburg Duchies joined the German Empire in 1871 and after World War
I were declared states of the new German Republic. In 1934 they were united
into a single German state of Mecklenburg. After World War II Mecklenburg
became part of the Soviet Zone. The state was dissolved in 1952, when East
Germany was reorganized into districts. The area remained behind the Iron
Curtain and part of East Germany until 1990 when Germany was unified and the
state of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania was created.

The dukes of Mecklenburg-Schwerin had their castle (Schlo§) and main
residence in the city of Schwerin. The seat of government and main home for
the dukes of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was in Neustrelitz. Princess Sophie
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz became Queen Charlotte of England in 1761.
Genealogical data concerning the house of Mecklenburg can be found on the
Internet Gotha, and some of its members can also be found in the royals
databases at Hull and PSU.

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Associations and Societies

* Genealogical Associations and Societies
* Historical Associations and Societies
* Other Associations and Societies

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Genealogical and Historical Records

* Church Records

The best source for genealogical information and family research in
Mecklenburg is the church records. Church records, also called
Kirchenb?cher, are particularly valuable in Mecklenburg because the
civil authorities did not begin registering births, marriages, and
deaths until after 1876. Generally recorded at the time of the event,
parish records contain births, baptisms, marriages, confirmations and
deaths. The data recorded in these records varied over time. Later
records usually have more information than early ones.

The Mecklenburg church records were microfilmed by the Genealogical
Society of Utah in 1951 and they are all available at the Family
History Center in Salt Lake City, Utah. Copies of these microfilms are
available for your research at local Family History Centers all over
the world. Copies of these microfilms are available for use in
Ratzeburg as well.

Domarchiv Ratzeburg
Domhof 35
D-23909 Ratzeburg

The church records of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz up
until 1875 are in Schwerin and are available at the archives:

Mecklenburgisches Kirchenbuchamt
M?nzstr. 8
D-19010 Schwerin

To find the church records for a given town, you will need to locate
the parish for that town. You can do this at a Family History Center.
D.A. Endler and Edmund Albrecht have published a Mecklenburgs
familiengeschichtliche Quellen which contains an alphabetical list of
all localities in both Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz
with their parish names. This index is available on Fiche #6000834/1-2
and should be at most Family History Centers. It is also available on
microfilm (reel#0496473, item 8).

* Civil Records

Civil Registration was introduced in Mecklenburg on January 1, 1876.
Civil registration records contain much the same information as that
found in church records, usually in greater detail. An advantage of
civil registration is that persons of all religions in the town are
found in one register. Information from civil registers after 1876 can
be obtained by writing to the Civil Registry Office (Standesamt) of the
town where your ancestor lived.

Official State calendars exist for each year from 1777 in
Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and from 1790 in Mecklenburg-Strelitz. A few of
these calendars are available through the Family History Centers.
However the most complete sets are probably held by the

Mecklenburgische Landesbibliothek
Am Dom 2
D-19055 Schwerin, Germany

The surviving records of the grand duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and
Mecklenburg-Strelitz are both on deposit at

Staatsarchiv Schwerin
Graf-Schack-Allee 2
D-19053 Schwerin, Germany

* Other Primary Records

o Census Census for Mecklenburg-Schwerin is available at the Family
History Centers for 1704, 1751, 1819, 1867, 1890 and 1900. There
are also a few early census records for the Duchy of Mecklenburg
for 1633-1634, 1677, and 1689 (microfilm #068,934).

There are no preserved census records for Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Only a statistical summary is available.

The 1867, 1890, and 1900 census information for
Mecklenburg-Schwerin is available on microfilm from the Family
History Center libraries. The 1867 census is on 357 microfilms,
the 1890 census is on 92 microfilms, and the 1900 census is on 755
microfilms. In order to use these films, you will need to know the
town your family was from. Use your Family History Center
Catalogue either on microfiche or computer to find out the correct
film numbers.

The 1819 Mecklenburg-Schwerin census is available from the Family
History Center libraries and is on 60 rolls of microfilm. This
census includes for each person the sex of the person, his/her
given and surname, the year and day of birth, the birthplace, the
parish to which the birthplace belonged, the family status or
occupation, property owned, how long he/she has lived there,
whether single or married, the family's religion, and general
comments. After the head of household, the wife is named
(sometimes giving her birth name), next the children, then
servants and any boarders, etc. The Immigrant Genealogical Society
will search the indexes for you and provide you with surname
information.

o Marriage Records

Kopulationsregister aus Mecklenburgischen Kirchenb?chern von 1751
bis 1800 by Franz Shubert (Family History Library 943.17 B4s
ser.6). This 37 volume series of marriage abstracts lists marriage
records of Mecklenburg from parish registers covering roughly
1751-1800. The Immigrant Genealogical Society will search the
marriage abstracts for you and provide you with information. There
are 13 index volumes.

o Land Records

Grundbesitzlisten Auf Feldflurkarten Mecklenburgs by Franz
Shubert. Transcribed names of Landowners in the state of
Mecklenburg in the year 1727. Family History Center film #1441034,
item 8 and #1181901, item 9.

o School Records

Names of students taking entrance exams in Mecklenburg schools in
the 18th century. Abiturienten mecklenburgisher Schulen im 19.
Jahrhunderrt (FHL 943.17 J2sf) by Franz Shubert, in two volumes.
Includes schools in Friedland, Neubrandenburg, Neustrelitz,
Doberan, G?strow, Parchim, Ratzeburg, Rostock, Schwerin, Waren,
Wismar, B?tzow, Ludwigslust, Malchin, and Rostock. Students of
theology, medicine, law, and military are included. Birth dates
and places of origin for many students are given. Each volume has
an alphabetical place, occupation, and name index.

o Citizen Registers

Citizen Registers from Mecklenburg are included in B?rgerb?cher
aus Mecklenburg by Franz Schubert (FHL 943.17 X2s). Vol. L2
includes citizens from Schwerin from documents from the years
1560, 1586, 1855, 1622, 1672, 1726, 1770, 1832, 1859, 1869, and
1887. Vol. M1 includes Neubrandenburg 1676-1893. Vol. A1 includes
citizens from Stavenhagen 1724-1741 and 1772-1918.

o Lineage Books

The Deutsches Geschlechterbuch, the German Lineage Book series
published by C.A. Starke Verlag, in Limburg, Germany contains four
volumes that pertain to Mecklenburg (volumes 57, 74, 88, and 105).
These books can be found at the Family History Center and larger
libraries in the United States and Canada. The four Mecklenburg
volumes are also on microfilm at the Family History Centers. In
addition to the four regional volumes mentioned, the general index
also lists 52 general volumes which should also be checked for
information on a given name or lineage. These include the first 17
volumes of the series which were Genealogical Handbooks of Common
(non-noble) Families. Only volumes 1 through 110 have been
microfilmed.

* Secondary Records

o The Roots Surname List

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Gazetteers and Maps

* Gazetteers

o D.A. Endler and Edmund Albrecht have published a Mecklenburgs
Familiengeschichtliche Quellen which contains an alphabetical list
of all localities in both Mecklenburg-Schwerin and
Mecklenburg-Strelitz with their parish names. This index is
available on Fiche #6000834/1-2 and should be at most Family
History Centers. It is also available on microfilm (reel#0496473,
item 8).

o Geographish-Statistisch-Historisches Handbuch Des Meklenburger
Lander by Gustav Hempel, G?strow: Edmund Frege, 1837-1843. (FHL
microfilm #1181668, item 5). This directory lists many small
villages not included in other available gazetteers.

* Atlases and Maps

o Historical Map of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

o ATLAS OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE 1892. This atlas contains enlarged
reproductions of 24 maps published in 1892 by Verlag des
Bibliographischen Instituts, Leipzig and Vienna. In addition to
maps of the German provinces, it contains a map of the entire 1892
German Empire (1:4,600,000). Map scale of the provinces varies
from 1:850,000 to 1:1,700.000. Small towns and hamlets are not on
the maps. Available through Genealogy Unlimited

o Detailed Maps of Germany including Mecklenburg area. 1: 100 000
scale from Haupe & Co. Ausflugskarte Series, or 1:200 000 scale
from Mairs Geographischer Verlag.

o ROAD ATLAS -- GERMANY (Deutschland) by RV Verlag. There are 229
pages of maps, a 101-page town-name index listing over 40,000 town
names, and new postal codes for all towns in the index. Town names
and text are in German. Available through Genealogy Unlimited

o Other Map Information

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Bibliography and Literature

* Bibliography
Literaturspiegel

* Literature
Fritz Reuter, known as the greatest of all Low German dialect writers,
was born in Mecklenburg. Two of his books which have been translated
into English describe the life of the common people in Mecklenburg
during the first half of the 19th century. Both books are available for
purchase by special order from Amazon Books or check with your local
library. They are also available through the inter-library loan
program. (For example, both books are available from the main branch of
the Los Angeles Public Library.)

SEED-TIME AND HARVEST; or During My Apprenticeship was translated from
Reuter's Ut Mine Stromtid, his most famous work. It is the story of
three groups of rural peasants in Mecklenburg--those who work for the
nobility on large estates, those who are tenant farmers, and those who
live in small villages. This book is a "must" if you want to understand
the life of these people.

WHEN THE FRENCH WERE HERE; or In the Year 1813 was translated from
Reuter's Ut de Franzosentid. The story takes place in a small village
in Mecklenburg during the French occupation and the ensuing War of
German Liberation. Mecklenburg suffered greatly during 1813 because of
the ravages and plundering of French troops.

* Genealogical Works
o Dorfsippenb?cher published in 1938 for the village of Boitin is
available on microfilm at the Family History Centers.

o Ortsfamilienb?cher: see our List of Ortsfamilienb?cher

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Archives and Libraries

Archives:
The following list of archives in Mecklenburg Vorpommern is divided into
four categories:

1. first the main archives or state archives (Landeschauptarchiv), then
2. the administrative district archives (Landesarchiv), next
3. the area archives (Landkreis) which are similar to county archives in
the United States, the city archives (Stadt), and the University
archives, and finally
4. the church archives.

1. State Archives

Staatsarchiv,
Graf-Schack-Allee 2
D-19053 Schwerin

2. District Archives

Vorpommersches Landesarchiv,
Martin-Andersen-Nexs-Platz 1
D-17489 Greifswald

3. Area, City, and University Archives
o Landkreis Bad Doberan Kreisarchiv, August-Bebel-Str. 3, D-18209
Bad Doberan

o Landkreis Demmin Kreisarchiv , Adolf-Pompe-Stra§e 12-15, D-17109
Demmin

o Stadtarchiv Greifswald, Arndtstra§e 2, D-17489 Greifswald

o UniversitStsarchiv Greifswald, Domstr. 11, D-17489 Greifswald

o Landkreis G?strow Kreisarchiv , D-18273 G?strow

o Landkreis Ludwigslust Kresiarchiv , Alexandrienstr. 576, D-19288
Ludwigslust

o Landkreis Mecklenburg-Strelitz Kreisarchiv, Bienenweg 1, D-17033
Neubrandenburg

o Stadtarchiv Neustrelitz, Stadtverwaltung, Markt 1, D-17235
Neustrelitz

o Landkreis M?ritz Kreisarchiv , Kietzstr. 10/11, D-17192 Waren

o Stadtarchiv Waren, Neuer Markt, D-17192 Waren

o Stadtarchiv Neubrandenburg, Stadtverwaltung, Friedrich-Engels-Ring
53, D-17033 Neubrandenburg

o Landkreis Nordvorpommern Kreisarchiv Grimmen, Bahnhofstra§e 12/13,
D-18507 Grimmen

o Landkreis Nordwestmecklenburg Kreisarchiv , Bsrzower Weg 1,
D-23936 Grevesm?hlen

o Landkreis Ostvorpommern Kreisarchiv , Demminer Str. 71-74, D-17389
Anklam

o Landkreis Parchim Kreisarchiv, Moltkeplatz 2, D-19370 Parchim,
Postfach 53 und 54, D-19361 Parchim

o Stadtarchiv Parchim, Putlitzer Str. 56, D-19370 Parchim

o Stadtarchiv Rostock, Archiv der Hansestadt Rostock, Hinter dem
Rathaus 5, D-18055 Rostock

o UniversitStsarchiv Rostock, UniversitStsplatz 1, D-18055 Rostock

o Landkreis R?gen Kreisarchiv , Industriestra§e 4, D-18528 Bergen

o Stadtarchiv Schwerin, Platz der Jugend 12-14, D-19053 Schwerin

o Central Land Archives, Grundbucharchiv Schwerin, L?beckerstr. 287,
D-19059 Schwerin

o Stadtarchiv Stralsund, Badenstr. 13, D-18439 Stralsund

o Landkreis Uecker-Randow Kreisarchiv , Am Markt 1, D-17309 Pasewalk

o Stadtarchiv Wismar, Vor dem F?rstenhof, D-23966 Wismar

4. Church Archives
o Mecklenburgisches Kirchenbuchamt, M?nzstr. 8, D-19010 Schwerin

o Domarchiv Ratzeburg, Domhof 35, D-23909 Ratzeburg

Libraries

* Mecklenburgische Landesbibliothek (District Library), Am Dom 2, D-19055
Schwerin, Germany

* LDS Family History Centers
Family History Centers in Europe

Family History Centers in the United States.

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Miscellaneous

* Regional Publishers and Booksellers
List of Publishers and Bookstores

* Emigration waves

After 1850, Mecklenburg had the third highest emigration count in
Europe, superceded only by Ireland and Galicia ( land which is
currently Poland and the Ukraine). 261,000 Mecklenburgers left their
home country (the Grand duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and
Mecklenburg-Strelitz) between 1820 and 1890. Many people, especially
those from the lower social classes, did not have any prospects or
future in Mecklenburg.

Between 1850 and 1890 approximately 146,000 Mecklenburgers emigrated
overseas, most going to the United States of America, but some also
going to South America, Australia, and other countries. Between 1820
and 1890 those going overseas accounted for two thirds of all the
emigrants from Mecklenburg. The defeat of the civil-democratic
revolution in 1848/49 and the return of the old social and political
problems gave fresh impetus to this emigration movement.

This loss of population was most prevalent from the so-called flat or
farm land. 88.5 % of all emigrants came from rural areas. Most of them
came from the manor houses of noble and titled big land-owners. These
were the people who had the most compelling reasons for leaving
Mecklenburg. This was mostly due to the miserable social conditions
caused by the right of establishment rules which existed almost
unchanged between 1820 and 1860.

In 1861, a Mecklenburg historian, Ernst Boll, explained the right of
abode and right of establishment this way: "a Mecklenburger does not
belong to the country as a whole as far as his home is concerned.
Rather, he belongs to the one city or village that he happens to be
born in, or to the city or village where he has received the right of
establishment" from the landowner.

These conditions came about when serfdom was annulled in Mecklenburg in
1820/21. At that time, many landowners took the opportunity to get rid
of most of their permanent day laborers who were now considered
personally free according to the law. They began to run their lands
with a minimum of permanent workers. The landowners did this so that
they would not have to pay for any laborers who were injured or take
care of them when they grew old. It was very difficult for day-laborers
who were thrown out to find permanent work elsewhere because a new
employer did not want to give them the "right of establishment" and
have to be responsible for them.

The granting of the right to marry also depended on the granting of the
right of establishment, and all subjects needed permission to marry
before they could have a family. A man or woman who did not have the
right of establishment could never start a home. A lot of people that
worked as needed paid laborers were refused the right of establishment
by the ruling class for their whole lives. They were given only a
limited right to residence - only for as long as they had work. Many
Mecklenburgers were, in effect, homeless in their own country.

Therefore it is no surprise that tens of thousands decided to emigrate.
In fact, the knights and landowners encouraged emigration at times. The
loss of population in rural areas grew larger and larger. While there
still was a population growth of 55,000 people between 1830 and 1850
despite the emigration, new births could not make up for the high
number of emigrants between 1850 and 1905. The rural population dropped
by 25,000.

After the German Empire was founded in 1871, industrialization spread
and some cities expanded rapidly. The number of people that emigrated
overseas decreased, and internal migration increased. More people that
were willing to emigrate went to cities and industrial towns outside of
Mecklenburg, such as the areas of Berlin and Hamburg rather than to
America.

In 1900 approximately 224,692 people who were Mecklenburgers by birth
lived outside of their home country. That was almost one third of the
Mecklenburg total population. On December 1, 1900 there were 53,902
emigrants from Mecklenburg-Schwerin living in Hamburg-Altona.

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Other WWW Internet resources

* Mecklenburg-Vorpommern World GenWeb page. Research help, information,
name list and querie pages

* Mecklenburg City Breaks. Historic city of Wismar

* Groth, Tarnow of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Groth family genealogy

* Garling Home pages. Specialist in Mestlin/Ruest, includes names and
pictures in that area

* Parchim in Mecklenburg Includes many pictures from Parchim area

* Hofmann Family home page Includes pictures from Mecklenburg

* Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Information. Includes pictures

* Mecklenburg Internet Service System. Includes links to other
Mecklenburg pages as well as a list of people that have internet
service and their internet addresses (in German)

* Descendants of Johann Prange, Prange Family home page

* Carol Bowen home page Goosmann/Gohsman genealogy

* Mecklenburg Flags and Crests Includes explanation and reason for
symbols

* Rostock-Online. History as well as current information and pictures of
Rostock

* Mecklenburg Vorpommern Highlights. Includes writeups of towns and
pictures

* 1000 Years of Mecklenburg. Black and white pictures and detailed
explanations of Mecklenburg landmarks

* Das Staatliche Museum Schwerin. Tour the state museum, includes
pictures of exhibits

* Current Information on Mecklenburg Vorpommern Theater, art, vacation
spots, natural resources (in German). Includes pictures.

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Flag source: FOTW Flags Of The World website at http://flags.cesi.it/flags/,
Artist: Zeljko Heimer, zheimer@public.srce.hr
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Carol Gohsman Bowen contributed this page.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Last update: 17-Aug-97 (mcb)
Please forward any comments and additions to this WWW-Page to:
Carol Gohsman Bowen or WebMaster

[Genealogy Home] [What's New] [General Help] [Regional Research]
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German Genealogy
Mecklenburg

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Contents:

* General Information
* History
* Associations and Societies
* Genealogical and Historical Records
* Gazetteers and Maps
* Bibliography and Literature
* Archives and Libraries
* Miscellaneous
* Other Internet Resources

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[flag]
Flag of Mecklenburg

General Information

* Introduction
If you look at a map of present-day Germany, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
appears as a state in northeastern Germany, bounded on the north by the
Baltic Sea (Ostsee), on the west by Schleswig-Holstein, on the
southwest by Lower Saxony, on the south by Brandenburg, and on the east
by Poland. The state lies in a fertile plain containing many forests
and lakes and is crossed by the Elde, Warnow, and several other rivers.
Prior to 1934, Mecklenburg borders were not the same as they are today.
Territories which were once the Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
and Mecklenburg-Strelitz were united into one State of Mecklenburg in
1934. Then, in 1945, Pomerania, another Prussian province, was split
into two sections. The part west of the Oder River was added to
Mecklenburg, making what is, today, the state of
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

* Political Divisions
Throughout the 1800's, Mecklenburg was divided into the two grand
duchies, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Mecklenburg-Strelitz was further divided into two parts, one on either
side of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. The government was a limited monarchy,
ruled by grand dukes. Each duchy was a separate state, but both bodies
met annually to make common laws and impose common taxes for the whole
of Mecklenburg. Both duchies used the same flag and coat of arms.

Mecklenburg-Schwerin consisted of: The Duchy of Schwerin, The
Principality of Schwerin, The Wenden District of the Duchy of G?strow,
The Lordship of Wismar (Wismar and the surrounding area were under the
rule of Sweden from 1648 to 1803), Rostock District, and The Domain of
Scattered Convents.

Mecklenburg-Strelitz consisted of: Stargard District of the Duchy of
G?strow on the eastern side of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and The
Principality of Ratzeburg on the western side of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

The Dukes in Mecklenburg-Strelitz in the 1800's were as follows:

1794-1816 Karl II.
1816-1860 Georg Friedrich

The Dukes in Mecklenburg-Schwerin in the 1800's were as follows:

1785-1837 Friedrich Franz I.
1837-1842 Paul Friedrich
1842-1883 Friedrich Franz II.

The grand dukes of Mecklenburg Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz were
deposed in 1918. The Mecklenburg-Strelitz line effectively died out.
The current "head" of the Mecklenburg-Schwerin line is Christian
Ludwig, Herzog zu Mecklenburg.

The lands of Mecklenburg were divided into Ritterschaft, Domanium, and
Landschaft. The properties of the knights belonged to the Ritterschaft.
All princely properties belonged to the Domanium. All the cities
belonged to the Landschaft except Rostock and Wismar. These sea ports
had their own special category. The status of individual localities
relative to these three divisions changed often. The divisions also
overlapped each other extensively.

Niekammer's Guter-Addressb?cher of 1908 shows the following division of
lands into districts or counties (Amte) in Mecklenburg, some with
overlapping jurisdiction as indicated:

o D.A. = Domanialamt or Domaenenamt (District of the Grand Duchy or
crownland, the revenue of which goes to the reigning sovereign).
+ Boizenburg (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Bukow (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Butrow (also a city district)
+ Crivitz (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Dargun (also a city district)
+ Doberan (also a city district)
+ Domitz (also a city district)
+ Gadebusch (also part of the Ritterschaft and a city district)
+ Grabow (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Grevesmuhlen (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ G?strow (also part of the Ritterschaft and a city district)
+ Hagenow (also a city district)
+ Lubz (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Meustadt (also part of the Ritterschaft)
+ Ribnitz (also part of the Ritterschaft and a city district)

o R. A. = Ritterschaft Amte (Knight district). Ritter means knight,
a term of elevated free status, originally claimed for performance
of military service to a sovereign; privileged "noble" rank. A
"Rittergut" (estate of a knight) was formerly owned only by those
of nobility. Later others who did not belong to families of
nobility were permitted to acquire "Ritterg?ter."
+ Gnoien (also a city district)
+ Goldberg (also a city district)
+ Ivenak (also a city district)
+ Mecklenburg (also a city district)
+ Neukalen (also a city district)
+ Plau (also a city district)
+ Sternberg (also a city district)

o StSdte (city) districts which were not also seats of D.A. or R.A
were as follows:
+ Malchin
+ Parchim
+ Ponzlin
+ Rostock
+ Tessin

o K.A. - Klosteramt (Monastery District). A Kloster is a cloister or
monastery. Klosterg?ter were under the jurisdiction of the
Catholic Church.
+ Amt Dobbertin
+ Amt Malchow
+ Amt Ribnitz
+ Kloster zum Heiligen Kreuz

o Another minor land district was the Rostocker which included:
+ Amt Ribnitz
+ Amt Schwaan

* Religious Divisions:

Mecklenburg was predominantly Evangelical Lutheran after 1549, with
some Jewish families living throughout the duchies. There were a few
Catholic areas, with the Catholic church controlling some of the land.

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History

Early people began to colonize the Mecklenburg area about ten thousand years
ago in the latter part of the Ice Age. The lives of the people in these
early times were geared towards hunting and they had a great dependence on
animals. Their tools were made from flint, bone and horn. Teutonic peoples
inhabited the Mecklenburg area in the first centuries of the Christian era,
but early in the 6th century, it was seized by various Slavic tribes. The
early name for the Mecklenburg area was Vandalia and later it was called
Wendenland. The land was not cultivated during the Slavic times, but was
covered everywhere with primeval forest. It was isolated and culturally cut
off from the rest of Germany.

The Mecklenburg region was conquered by Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony, in
the latter half of the 12th century and the land was first opened up by
Henry through a combination of missionary work and colonization. In 1348 it
was elevated to a duchy. In 1549 Lutheranism was recognized as the State
religion. Then, in 1621, Mecklenburg was split into two duchies:
Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg -G?strow (changed to
Mecklenburg-Strelitz in 1701). Mecklenburg-Schwerin was about the size of
the state of Connecticut. Mecklenburg-Strelitz was about as large as the
state of Rhode Island in the United States, and was divided into two parts,
one on either side of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

Between 1733 and 1755 the estate owners of Mecklenburg increased their land
holdings. They were backed by the Kaiser of the Holy Roman Empire in this
effort. By the Convention of Rostock in 1755 in Mecklenburg Schwerin, all
power was placed in the hands of the Duke, nobles, and upper classes. The
lower classes had no voice. Land was held under a Feudal system. From 1759
to 1764 all of Mecklenburg was occupied by Prussia. Unlike the surrounding
areas, however, Mecklenburg managed to remain autonomous for another
century.

In Mecklenburg during the 1700s and 1800s a type of Feudalism existed known
as "Inherited Serfdom". The land owners controlled the economy and ruled
their estates with absolute authority. The peasants were dependant entirely
on the nobles who could even buy and sell them with or without their
property. The tax rate on the peasants had to be reviewed every two to three
years, and was usually increased at that time. They could not acquire any
more land than they already had. Their Landlords produced crops for export
from their vast estates by using the labor of these bonded peasants,
servants and laborers. The landlords were known as "Landed Junkers". his
word comes from "Jung Herr" which means "young noble".

By the 1800's the Landlords had driven away more and more peasants with
their highhanded ways. They then incorporated those peasants' plots into
their estates, and crop production expanded further. This callous robbery of
the peasant properties was known as "peasant seizure". Ten thousand peasants
lost their holdings in this way. In Mecklenburg, where the Nobility owned
almost all of the land and dwellings, the number of estimated peasant
foreclosures went from 2,490 to nearly 12,000 by 1800 AD. The former
peasants who ad land left held only small holdings which ensured little more
than a bare livelihood for themselves.

In 1807 Baron von Stein tried to carry through a reform of the Feudal
system. He felt the peasants' and laborers' lot had to be improved. He did
not want to abolish the large Landholders, but they were to be limited in
their political and administrative powers and to improve the state of their
workers. At that time, workers worked from sunrise to sunset for a pfennig
an hour, a very small amount. he value of goods (potatoes, corn, wood, etc.)
was deducted from that and most of their work was paid for by these goods.
Women and children performed heavy work. Baron von Stein's reform said that
peasants could now change their place of residence without permission, and
children were allowed to learn a trade. But the Landlords ought these
progressive measures, refused to implement them, and the edict of Baron von
Stein was never executed.

>From 1806 to 1813 the country suffered great hardship and destruction. This
period came to be known to all Mecklenburgers as the "Franzosentid" ( period
of French occupation). Robbery and pillage became commonplace. Both duchies,
Mecklenburg Schwerin and Mecklenburg Strelitz, were forced to join the
Confederation of the Rhine under Napoleon's protectorate. Of the more than
2,000 men who were conscripted from Mecklenburg to take part in Napoleon's
campaign against Russia, less than one hundred came home again.

After Napoleon's defeat in Russia, the dukes of both Mecklenburgs were among
the first to renounce the alliance with France. In the War of German
Liberation which followed (1813-1815), Mecklenburg played a significant part
in defeating Napoleon and liberating Germany from France. In 1815, the dukes
of Mecklenburg were elevated to "Grand Dukes", and Mecklenburg became a
Grand Duchy. With the coming of peace, however, there also came a period of
economic depression which lasted until the early 1820s.

Legally, serfdom was abolished in Mecklenburg in 1820 and the peasants were
freed from their obligations to land owners. But this worsened the
conditions for most peasants because the land owners were freed , at the
same time, of any obligations under feudal law to provide their tenants with
any means of supporting themselves, thus leaving the peasants in even
greater poverty. The servant of a noble landowner was not even permitted to
marry unless his master gave him permission and a place to live.

Those villagers who were without land became cottagers or gardeners.
Eventually they were simply known as day laborers (Tageloehners) and lived
in poverty. They were deprived almost entirely of their earnings and
thereafter were forced to work for a starvation wage on the Junker estates.
They traveled the countryside, moving from estate to estate as the land
owner required their labor for plowing, planting or harvesting crops. The
life they lived gave no possibility of resistance in an effort to better
their condition.

Many peasants and labourers left Mecklenburg and emigrated to other
countries s their conditions became unbearable. In the early 1840s, the
liberal bourgeois party began to speak out against the noble landowners and
the special privileges granted them. By 1848 there were secret meetings in
many Mecklenburg towns of reform societies and a political revolution was a
distinct possibility. However the revolution did not have enough support and
eventually failed. The workers' situation in Mecklenburg remained bleak
until, under the Soviet Military Administration, in October 1945 there was a
land reform and the large estates and their landholders disappeared. The
government took over their land.

The Mecklenburg Duchies joined the German Empire in 1871 and after World War
I were declared states of the new German Republic. In 1934 they were united
into a single German state of Mecklenburg. After World War II Mecklenburg
became part of the Soviet Zone. The state was dissolved in 1952, when East
Germany was reorganized into districts. The area remained behind the Iron
Curtain and part of East Germany until 1990 when Germany was unified and the
state of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania was created.

The dukes of Mecklenburg-Schwerin had their castle (Schlo§) and main
residence in the city of Schwerin. The seat of government and main home for
the dukes of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was in Neustrelitz. Princess Sophie
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz became Queen Charlotte of England in 1761.
Genealogical data concerning the house of Mecklenburg can be found on the
Internet Gotha, and some of its members can also be found in the royals
databases at Hull and PSU.

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Associations and Societies

* Genealogical Associations and Societies
* Historical Associations and Societies
* Other Associations and Societies

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Genealogical and Historical Records

* Church Records

The best source for genealogical information and family research in
Mecklenburg is the church records. Church records, also called
Kirchenb?cher, are particularly valuable in Mecklenburg because the
civil authorities did not begin registering births, marriages, and
deaths until after 1876. Generally recorded at the time of the event,
parish records contain births, baptisms, marriages, confirmations and
deaths. The data recorded in these records varied over time. Later
records usually have more information than early ones.

The Mecklenburg church records were microfilmed by the Genealogical
Society of Utah in 1951 and they are all available at the Family
History Center in Salt Lake City, Utah. Copies of these microfilms are
available for your research at local Family History Centers all over
the world. Copies of these microfilms are available for use in
Ratzeburg as well.

Domarchiv Ratzeburg
Domhof 35
D-23909 Ratzeburg

The church records of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz up
until 1875 are in Schwerin and are available at the archives:

Mecklenburgisches Kirchenbuchamt
M?nzstr. 8
D-19010 Schwerin

To find the church records for a given town, you will need to locate
the parish for that town. You can do this at a Family History Center.
D.A. Endler and Edmund Albrecht have published a Mecklenburgs
familiengeschichtliche Quellen which contains an alphabetical list of
all localities in both Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz
with their parish names. This index is available on Fiche #6000834/1-2
and should be at most Family History Centers. It is also available on
microfilm (reel#0496473, item 8).

* Civil Records

Civil Registration was introduced in Mecklenburg on January 1, 1876.
Civil registration records contain much the same information as that
found in church records, usually in greater detail. An advantage of
civil registration is that persons of all religions in the town are
found in one register. Information from civil registers after 1876 can
be obtained by writing to the Civil Registry Office (Standesamt) of the
town where your ancestor lived.

Official State calendars exist for each year from 1777 in
Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and from 1790 in Mecklenburg-Strelitz. A few of
these calendars are available through the Family History Centers.
However the most complete sets are probably held by the

Mecklenburgische Landesbibliothek
Am Dom 2
D-19055 Schwerin, Germany

The surviving records of the grand duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and
Mecklenburg-Strelitz are both on deposit at

Staatsarchiv Schwerin
Graf-Schack-Allee 2
D-19053 Schwerin, Germany

* Other Primary Records

o Census Census for Mecklenburg-Schwerin is available at the Family
History Centers for 1704, 1751, 1819, 1867, 1890 and 1900. There
are also a few early census records for the Duchy of Mecklenburg
for 1633-1634, 1677, and 1689 (microfilm #068,934).

There are no preserved census records for Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Only a statistical summary is available.

The 1867, 1890, and 1900 census information for
Mecklenburg-Schwerin is available on microfilm from the Family
History Center libraries. The 1867 census is on 357 microfilms,
the 1890 census is on 92 microfilms, and the 1900 census is on 755
microfilms. In order to use these films, you will need to know the
town your family was from. Use your Family History Center
Catalogue either on microfiche or computer to find out the correct
film numbers.

The 1819 Mecklenburg-Schwerin census is available from the Family
History Center libraries and is on 60 rolls of microfilm. This
census includes for each person the sex of the person, his/her
given and surname, the year and day of birth, the birthplace, the
parish to which the birthplace belonged, the family status or
occupation, property owned, how long he/she has lived there,
whether single or married, the family's religion, and general
comments. After the head of household, the wife is named
(sometimes giving her birth name), next the children, then
servants and any boarders, etc. The Immigrant Genealogical Society
will search the indexes for you and provide you with surname
information.

o Marriage Records

Kopulationsregister aus Mecklenburgischen Kirchenb?chern von 1751
bis 1800 by Franz Shubert (Family History Library 943.17 B4s
ser.6). This 37 volume series of marriage abstracts lists marriage
records of Mecklenburg from parish registers covering roughly
1751-1800. The Immigrant Genealogical Society will search the
marriage abstracts for you and provide you with information. There
are 13 index volumes.

o Land Records

Grundbesitzlisten Auf Feldflurkarten Mecklenburgs by Franz
Shubert. Transcribed names of Landowners in the state of
Mecklenburg in the year 1727. Family History Center film #1441034,
item 8 and #1181901, item 9.

o School Records

Names of students taking entrance exams in Mecklenburg schools in
the 18th century. Abiturienten mecklenburgisher Schulen im 19.
Jahrhunderrt (FHL 943.17 J2sf) by Franz Shubert, in two volumes.
Includes schools in Friedland, Neubrandenburg, Neustrelitz,
Doberan, G?strow, Parchim, Ratzeburg, Rostock, Schwerin, Waren,
Wismar, B?tzow, Ludwigslust, Malchin, and Rostock. Students of
theology, medicine, law, and military are included. Birth dates
and places of origin for many students are given. Each volume has
an alphabetical place, occupation, and name index.

o Citizen Registers

Citizen Registers from Mecklenburg are included in B?rgerb?cher
aus Mecklenburg by Franz Schubert (FHL 943.17 X2s). Vol. L2
includes citizens from Schwerin from documents from the years
1560, 1586, 1855, 1622, 1672, 1726, 1770, 1832, 1859, 1869, and
1887. Vol. M1 includes Neubrandenburg 1676-1893. Vol. A1 includes
citizens from Stavenhagen 1724-1741 and 1772-1918.

o Lineage Books

The Deutsches Geschlechterbuch, the German Lineage Book series
published by C.A. Starke Verlag, in Limburg, Germany contains four
volumes that pertain to Mecklenburg (volumes 57, 74, 88, and 105).
These books can be found at the Family History Center and larger
libraries in the United States and Canada. The four Mecklenburg
volumes are also on microfilm at the Family History Centers. In
addition to the four regional volumes mentioned, the general index
also lists 52 general volumes which should also be checked for
information on a given name or lineage. These include the first 17
volumes of the series which were Genealogical Handbooks of Common
(non-noble) Families. Only volumes 1 through 110 have been
microfilmed.

* Secondary Records

o The Roots Surname List

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Gazetteers and Maps

* Gazetteers

o D.A. Endler and Edmund Albrecht have published a Mecklenburgs
Familiengeschichtliche Quellen which contains an alphabetical list
of all localities in both Mecklenburg-Schwerin and
Mecklenburg-Strelitz with their parish names. This index is
available on Fiche #6000834/1-2 and should be at most Family
History Centers. It is also available on microfilm (reel#0496473,
item 8).

o Geographish-Statistisch-Historisches Handbuch Des Meklenburger
Lander by Gustav Hempel, G?strow: Edmund Frege, 1837-1843. (FHL
microfilm #1181668, item 5). This directory lists many small
villages not included in other available gazetteers.

* Atlases and Maps

o Historical Map of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

o ATLAS OF THE GERMAN EMPIRE 1892. This atlas contains enlarged
reproductions of 24 maps published in 1892 by Verlag des
Bibliographischen Instituts, Leipzig and Vienna. In addition to
maps of the German provinces, it contains a map of the entire 1892
German Empire (1:4,600,000). Map scale of the provinces varies
from 1:850,000 to 1:1,700.000. Small towns and hamlets are not on
the maps. Available through Genealogy Unlimited

o Detailed Maps of Germany including Mecklenburg area. 1: 100 000
scale from Haupe & Co. Ausflugskarte Series, or 1:200 000 scale
from Mairs Geographischer Verlag.

o ROAD ATLAS -- GERMANY (Deutschland) by RV Verlag. There are 229
pages of maps, a 101-page town-name index listing over 40,000 town
names, and new postal codes for all towns in the index. Town names
and text are in German. Available through Genealogy Unlimited

o Other Map Information

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Bibliography and Literature

* Bibliography
Literaturspiegel

* Literature
Fritz Reuter, known as the greatest of all Low German dialect writers,
was born in Mecklenburg. Two of his books which have been translated
into English describe the life of the common people in Mecklenburg
during the first half of the 19th century. Both books are available for
purchase by special order from Amazon Books or check with your local
library. They are also available through the inter-library loan
program. (For example, both books are available from the main branch of
the Los Angeles Public Library.)

SEED-TIME AND HARVEST; or During My Apprenticeship was translated from
Reuter's Ut Mine Stromtid, his most famous work. It is the story of
three groups of rural peasants in Mecklenburg--those who work for the
nobility on large estates, those who are tenant farmers, and those who
live in small villages. This book is a "must" if you want to understand
the life of these people.

WHEN THE FRENCH WERE HERE; or In the Year 1813 was translated from
Reuter's Ut de Franzosentid. The story takes place in a small village
in Mecklenburg during the French occupation and the ensuing War of
German Liberation. Mecklenburg suffered greatly during 1813 because of
the ravages and plundering of French troops.

* Genealogical Works
o Dorfsippenb?cher published in 1938 for the village of Boitin is
available on microfilm at the Family History Centers.

o Ortsfamilienb?cher: see our List of Ortsfamilienb?cher

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Archives and Libraries

Archives:
The following list of archives in Mecklenburg Vorpommern is divided into
four categories:

1. first the main archives or state archives (Landeschauptarchiv), then
2. the administrative district archives (Landesarchiv), next
3. the area archives (Landkreis) which are similar to county archives in
the United States, the city archives (Stadt), and the University
archives, and finally
4. the church archives.

1. State Archives

Staatsarchiv,
Graf-Schack-Allee 2
D-19053 Schwerin

2. District Archives

Vorpommersches Landesarchiv,
Martin-Andersen-Nexs-Platz 1
D-17489 Greifswald

3. Area, City, and University Archives
o Landkreis Bad Doberan Kreisarchiv, August-Bebel-Str. 3, D-18209
Bad Doberan

o Landkreis Demmin Kreisarchiv , Adolf-Pompe-Stra§e 12-15, D-17109
Demmin

o Stadtarchiv Greifswald, Arndtstra§e 2, D-17489 Greifswald

o UniversitStsarchiv Greifswald, Domstr. 11, D-17489 Greifswald

o Landkreis G?strow Kreisarchiv , D-18273 G?strow

o Landkreis Ludwigslust Kresiarchiv , Alexandrienstr. 576, D-19288
Ludwigslust

o Landkreis Mecklenburg-Strelitz Kreisarchiv, Bienenweg 1, D-17033
Neubrandenburg

o Stadtarchiv Neustrelitz, Stadtverwaltung, Markt 1, D-17235
Neustrelitz

o Landkreis M?ritz Kreisarchiv , Kietzstr. 10/11, D-17192 Waren

o Stadtarchiv Waren, Neuer Markt, D-17192 Waren

o Stadtarchiv Neubrandenburg, Stadtverwaltung, Friedrich-Engels-Ring
53, D-17033 Neubrandenburg

o Landkreis Nordvorpommern Kreisarchiv Grimmen, Bahnhofstra§e 12/13,
D-18507 Grimmen

o Landkreis Nordwestmecklenburg Kreisarchiv , Bsrzower Weg 1,
D-23936 Grevesm?hlen

o Landkreis Ostvorpommern Kreisarchiv , Demminer Str. 71-74, D-17389
Anklam

o Landkreis Parchim Kreisarchiv, Moltkeplatz 2, D-19370 Parchim,
Postfach 53 und 54, D-19361 Parchim

o Stadtarchiv Parchim, Putlitzer Str. 56, D-19370 Parchim

o Stadtarchiv Rostock, Archiv der Hansestadt Rostock, Hinter dem
Rathaus 5, D-18055 Rostock

o UniversitStsarchiv Rostock, UniversitStsplatz 1, D-18055 Rostock

o Landkreis R?gen Kreisarchiv , Industriestra§e 4, D-18528 Bergen

o Stadtarchiv Schwerin, Platz der Jugend 12-14, D-19053 Schwerin

o Central Land Archives, Grundbucharchiv Schwerin, L?beckerstr. 287,
D-19059 Schwerin

o Stadtarchiv Stralsund, Badenstr. 13, D-18439 Stralsund

o Landkreis Uecker-Randow Kreisarchiv , Am Markt 1, D-17309 Pasewalk

o Stadtarchiv Wismar, Vor dem F?rstenhof, D-23966 Wismar

4. Church Archives
o Mecklenburgisches Kirchenbuchamt, M?nzstr. 8, D-19010 Schwerin

o Domarchiv Ratzeburg, Domhof 35, D-23909 Ratzeburg

Libraries

* Mecklenburgische Landesbibliothek (District Library), Am Dom 2, D-19055
Schwerin, Germany

* LDS Family History Centers
Family History Centers in Europe

Family History Centers in the United States.

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Miscellaneous

* Regional Publishers and Booksellers
List of Publishers and Bookstores

* Emigration waves

After 1850, Mecklenburg had the third highest emigration count in
Europe, superceded only by Ireland and Galicia ( land which is
currently Poland and the Ukraine). 261,000 Mecklenburgers left their
home country (the Grand duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and
Mecklenburg-Strelitz) between 1820 and 1890. Many people, especially
those from the lower social classes, did not have any prospects or
future in Mecklenburg.

Between 1850 and 1890 approximately 146,000 Mecklenburgers emigrated
overseas, most going to the United States of America, but some also
going to South America, Australia, and other countries. Between 1820
and 1890 those going overseas accounted for two thirds of all the
emigrants from Mecklenburg. The defeat of the civil-democratic
revolution in 1848/49 and the return of the old social and political
problems gave fresh impetus to this emigration movement.

This loss of population was most prevalent from the so-called flat or
farm land. 88.5 % of all emigrants came from rural areas. Most of them
came from the manor houses of noble and titled big land-owners. These
were the people who had the most compelling reasons for leaving
Mecklenburg. This was mostly due to the miserable social conditions
caused by the right of establishment rules which existed almost
unchanged between 1820 and 1860.

In 1861, a Mecklenburg historian, Ernst Boll, explained the right of
abode and right of establishment this way: "a Mecklenburger does not
belong to the country as a whole as far as his home is concerned.
Rather, he belongs to the one city or village that he happens to be
born in, or to the city or village where he has received the right of
establishment" from the landowner.

These conditions came about when serfdom was annulled in Mecklenburg in
1820/21. At that time, many landowners took the opportunity to get rid
of most of their permanent day laborers who were now considered
personally free according to the law. They began to run their lands
with a minimum of permanent workers. The landowners did this so that
they would not have to pay for any laborers who were injured or take
care of them when they grew old. It was very difficult for day-laborers
who were thrown out to find permanent work elsewhere because a new
employer did not want to give them the "right of establishment" and
have to be responsible for them.

The granting of the right to marry also depended on the granting of the
right of establishment, and all subjects needed permission to marry
before they could have a family. A man or woman who did not have the
right of establishment could never start a home. A lot of people that
worked as needed paid laborers were refused the right of establishment
by the ruling class for their whole lives. They were given only a
limited right to residence - only for as long as they had work. Many
Mecklenburgers were, in effect, homeless in their own country.

Therefore it is no surprise that tens of thousands decided to emigrate.
In fact, the knights and landowners encouraged emigration at times. The
loss of population in rural areas grew larger and larger. While there
still was a population growth of 55,000 people between 1830 and 1850
despite the emigration, new births could not make up for the high
number of emigrants between 1850 and 1905. The rural population dropped
by 25,000.

After the German Empire was founded in 1871, industrialization spread
and some cities expanded rapidly. The number of people that emigrated
overseas decreased, and internal migration increased. More people that
were willing to emigrate went to cities and industrial towns outside of
Mecklenburg, such as the areas of Berlin and Hamburg rather than to
America.

In 1900 approximately 224,692 people who were Mecklenburgers by birth
lived outside of their home country. That was almost one third of the
Mecklenburg total population. On December 1, 1900 there were 53,902
emigrants from Mecklenburg-Schwerin living in Hamburg-Altona.

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Other WWW Internet resources

* Mecklenburg-Vorpommern World GenWeb page. Research help, information,
name list and querie pages

* Mecklenburg City Breaks. Historic city of Wismar

* Groth, Tarnow of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Groth family genealogy

* Garling Home pages. Specialist in Mestlin/Ruest, includes names and
pictures in that area

* Parchim in Mecklenburg Includes many pictures from Parchim area

* Hofmann Family home page Includes pictures from Mecklenburg

* Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Information. Includes pictures

* Mecklenburg Internet Service System. Includes links to other
Mecklenburg pages as well as a list of people that have internet
service and their internet addresses (in German)

* Descendants of Johann Prange, Prange Family home page

* Carol Bowen home page Goosmann/Gohsman genealogy

* Mecklenburg Flags and Crests Includes explanation and reason for
symbols

* Rostock-Online. History as well as current information and pictures of
Rostock

* Mecklenburg Vorpommern Highlights. Includes writeups of towns and
pictures

* 1000 Years of Mecklenburg. Black and white pictures and detailed
explanations of Mecklenburg landmarks

* Das Staatliche Museum Schwerin. Tour the state museum, includes
pictures of exhibits

* Current Information on Mecklenburg Vorpommern Theater, art, vacation
spots, natural resources (in German). Includes pictures.

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Flag source: FOTW Flags Of The World website at http://flags.cesi.it/flags/,
Artist: Zeljko Heimer, zheimer@public.srce.hr
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Carol Gohsman Bowen contributed this page.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Last update: 17-Aug-97 (mcb)
Please forward any comments and additions to this WWW-Page to:
Carol Gohsman Bowen or WebMaster

[Genealogy Home (D) / (E)] [What's New] [General Help] [Regional Research]
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Hamburg Passenger Lists, 1850-1934

Lists of passengers on of vessels sailing from Hamburg between 1850 and 1934
survive in the Hamburg State Archive [Staatsarchiv], Bestand Auswandereramt.
The Family History Library in Salt Lake City has microfilm copies of these
manifests, comprising 486 reels, which can be consulted either at the Family
History Library itself or at any LDS (Mormon) Family History Center outside
Germany (restrictions imposed by the Staatsarchiv Hamburg forbid lending
these microfilms to any Family History Center within Germany).

Series. The passenger lists consist of two series:

1. Direct Lists, containing the names of those passengers on vessels that
sailed from Hamburg directly to an overseas port. The lists, bound into
volumes, extend from 1850 to 1914 and from 1920 to 1934; there was no
emigration through Hamburg during World War I. The lists for 1850-1855
are not, properly speaking, "lists", but rather extracts from lists,
arranged alphabetically by the first letter of the surname of the head
of household, then chronologically by the date the vessel left Hamburg.
From 1855, the lists are arranged chronologically by the date the
vessel left Hamburg. The volume of extracts for January-June 1853 has
been missing since at least the 1920's.

2. Indirect Lists, containing the names of those passengers who proceded
from Hamburg to an intermediate British or other European port, where
they boarded other vessels for their ultimate destination. The lists
extend from 1854-1910; the names of such passengers for 1850-1854 and
from 1911 onwards are included in the Direct Lists.

Indexes.

1. Contemporary. The extract Direct and Indirect Lists for 1850-1855 do
not require separate indexes, as they are arranged alphabetically by
the first letter of the surname of the head of household. Separate
indexes for both the Direct and Indirect Lists exist from 1855 through
1910; for the period 1911-1914 and 1920-1934 there is a single index
for both series. The indexes for 1855-1914 are arranged by the first
letter of surname of the head of household, then chronologically by the
date the vessel left Hamburg; the indexes for 1920-1934 are in strict
alphabetical order.

2. Modern.
1) A 15-year index, covering the Direct Lists for 1856-1871, was
compiled on typed cards by LDS volunteers in 1969. It is easy to
use, but incomplete.
2) The late Hamburg genealogist Karl Werner Kl?ber compiled a card
index to the Direct Lists for 1850-1870, and to the Indirect Lists
for 1850-1867. The Family History Library does not have a
microfilm copy of this index, which is deposited in the
Staatsarchiv Hamburg, ABC-Stra§e 19, D-20354 Hamburg, which will
search this index for a fee.

Additional records in the Staatsarchiv Hamburg, but not available on
microfilm through the Family History Library, include 3 volumes listing the
ships that sailed from Hamburg carrying emigrants, 1850-1914; 2 volumes
listing people going overseas on merchant (as distinct from emigration)
vessels, 1871-1887; lists of returning Jewish emigrants, 1905-1907; and
lists of prospective emigrants denied emigration due to disease or other
causes.

[Direct Indexes] [Direct Lists] [Indirect Indexes] [Indirect Lists]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Index to Direct Lists, 1856-1871 (compiled 1969, incomplete)

Film # Contents

0884668 AAB, George - BREYER, Adam
0884669 BREYTSPAAK, Eliza H. - FICK, Ludwig
0884670 FICK, Maria - HARTZKE, August
0884671 HARUNG, Fridolin - KATZ, Salomon
0884672 KATZ, Samuel - LEWIN, And.
0884673 LEWIN, August - NEUER, Genofeva
0884674 NEUFELD, Joseph - RISTOW, Friedr.
0884675 RISTOW, H.F.W. - SCHWASSENGEWER, H.
0884676 SCHWARTZ, Abrah. - VOLKMANN, A.F.W.
0884677 VOLKMANN, Aug. - ZYNDLER, Mathilde

[15-Year Index, 1856-1871] [Direct Lists] [Indirect Indexes] [Indirect
Lists]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Indexes to Direct Lists

Film # Contents

0473070 Bd. 1 1855 Apr - 1856 Nov
Bd. 2 1857 Feb - 1858 Nov
0473071 Bd. 3 1859 Feb - 1861 Nov
Bd. 4 1862 - 1863
0473072 Bd. 5 1864 - 1865
Bd. 6 1866
0473073 Bd. 7 1867 - 1868 Aug
0473074 Bd. 8 1868 Aug - 1869 Oct
Bd. 9 1869 Oct - 1871 Oct
0473075 Bd. 10 1871 Oct - 1872 Dec
0473076 Bd. 11 1873 Jan - 1874 Jun
0473077 Bd. 12 1874 Jun - 1875 Dec
0473078 Bd. 13 1876 Jan - 1878 Sep
0473079 Bd. 14 1878 Sep - 1880 May
Bd. 15 1880 May - 1880 Sep
0473080 Bd. 16 1880 Sep - 1881 May
Bd. 17 1881 May - 1881 Nov
0473081 Bd. 18 1881 Nov - 1882 May
Bd. 19 1882 May - 1882 Sep
0473082 Bd. 20 1882 Oct - 1883 May
Bd. 21 1883 May - 1883 Oct
0473083 Bd. 22 1883 Oct - 1884 Apr
0473084 Bd. 23 1884 Apr - 1884 Aug
Bd. 24 1884 Sep - 1885 May
0473085 Bd. 25 1885 May - 1885 Dec
0473086 Bd. 26 1886 Jan - 1886 Jun
Bd. 27 1886 Jul - 1886 Oct
0473087 Bd. 28 1886 Oct - 1887 May
Bd. 29 1887 May - 1887 Oct
0473088 Bd. 30 1887 Oct - 1888 Apr
Bd. 31 1888 Apr - 1888 Jun
0473089 Bd. 32 1888 Jul - 1888 Dec
0473090 Bd. 33 1889 Jan - 1889 Jun
0473091 Bd. 34 1889 Jun - 1889 Dec
0473092 Bd. 35 1890 Jan - 1890 May
0473093 Bd. 36 1890 May - 1890 Aug
Bd. 37 1890 Sep - 1890 Dec
0473094 Bd. 38 1891 Jan - 1891 Apr
Bd. 39 1891 Apr - 1891 Jul
0473095 Bd. 40 1891 Jul - 1891 Sep
Bd. 41 1891 Sep - 1892 Jan
0473096 Bd. 42 1892 Jan - 1892 Apr
Bd. 43 1892 Apr - 1892 Jun
Bd. 44 1892 Jun - 1892 Aug
0473097 Bd. 45 1892 Aug - 1893 Apr
0473098 Bd. 46 1893 Apr - 1893 Jun
0473099 Bd. 47 1893 Jul - 1893 Nov
0473100 Bd. 48 1893 Nov - 1894 Jun
0473102 Bd. 49 1894 Jun - 1894 Nov
Bd. 50 1894 Nov - 1895 Jun
0473103 Bd. 51 1895 Jun - 1895 Nov
0473104 Bd. 52 1895 Nov - 1896 Jun
0473105 Bd. 53 1896 Jun - 1897 Feb
0473106 Bd. 54 1897 Mar - 1897 Oct
0473107 Bd. 55 1897 Nov - 1898 Aug
Bd. 56 1898 Aug - 1899 Mar
0473108 Bd. 57 1899 Mar - 1899 Jun
0473109 Bd. 58 1899 Jun - 1899 Oct
0473110 Bd. 59 1899 Oct - 1900 Mar
0473111 Bd. 60 1900 Mar - 1900 May
0473112 Bd. 61 1900 May - 1900 Jul
0473113 Bd. 62 1900 Jul - 1900 Nov
Bd. 63 1900 Nov - 1901 Apr
0473114 Bd. 64 1901 Apr - 1901 Jun
Bd. 65 1901 Jun - 1901 Sep
0473115 Bd. 66 1901 Oct - 1902 Jan
Bd. 67 1902 Feb - 1902 Mar
0473116 Bd. 68 1902 Apr - 1902 May
Bd. 69 1902 May - 1902 Jul
0473117 Bd. 69A 1902 Aug - 1902 Oct
Bd. 70 1902 Nov - 1903 Feb
0473118 Bd. 71 1903 Mar - 1903 Apr
0473119 Bd. 72 1903 May - 1903 Jun
0473120 Bd. 73 1903 Jun - 1903 Aug
0473121 Bd. 74 1903 Sep - 1903 Dec
0473122 Bd. 75-76 1904 Jan - 1903 May
0473123 Bd. 77-78 1904 Jun - 1904 Sep
0473124 Bd. 79-80 1904 Oct - 1904 Dec
0473125 Bd. 81-83 1905 Jan - 1905 May
0473126 Bd. 84-86 1905 Jun - 1905 Dec
0473127 Bd. 87-89 1906 Jan - 1906 Jun
0473128 Bd. 90-92 1906 Jul - 1906 Dec
0473129 Bd. 93-94 1907 Jan - 1907 Apr
0473130 Bd. 95-96 1907 May - 1907 Aug
0473131 Bd. 97 1907 Sep - 1907 Nov
Bd. 98 1907 Nov - 1908 Apr
0473132 Bd. 99-100 1908 Apr - 1908 Dec
0473133 Bd. 101-102 1909 Jan - 1909 Jun
0473134 Bd. 103 1909 Jun - 1909 Sep
0473135 Bd. 104 1909 Sep - 1909 Nov
0473136 Bd. 105 1909 Nov - 1910 Feb
Bd. 106-107 1910 Feb - 1910 Jun
0473137 Bd. 108-111 1910 Jul - 1910 Dec

Combined Indexes to both Direct and Indirect Lists

Film # Contents

0473138 Bd. 112 1911 Jan - 1911 Apr
0473139 Bd. 113 1911 Apr - 1911 Jul
0473140 Bd. 114 1911 Jul - 1911 Sep
0473141 Bd. 115 1911 Sep - 1911 Dec
0473142 Bd. 116-117 1911 Dec - 1912 May
0473143 Bd. 118-119 1912 May - 1912 Oct
0473144 Bd. 120-121 1912 Oct - 1913 Feb
0473145 Bd. 122-124 1913 Feb - 1913 May
0473146 Bd. 125-127 1913 May - 1913 Jul
0473147 Bd. 128-130 1913 Jul - 1913 Sep
0473148 Bd. 131-132 1913 Sep - 1913 Nov
0473149 Bd. 133 1913 Nov - 1913 Dec
0473150 Bd. 134-136 1914 Jan - 1914 May
0473151 Bd. 137-138 1914 May - 1914 Jul

1914 Sep - 1919 Dec No indexes or lists due to World War I.

0536487 1920 A - L
0543435 1920 M - Z
0543436 1921 A - Bender, M.
0543437 1921 Bender, S. - Feintuch, Max
0543438 1921 Feintuch, Mendel - Hsvel
0536488 1921 Hof - Korrath
0536489 1921 Korsch - Navardy
0536490 1921 Navarro - Sievers, Walter
0536491 1921 Sievers, Wilhelm - Tripf
0536492 1921 Triplett - Z
0536493 1922 A - Baumann, H.
0536494 1922 Baumann, I. - Dengler, N.
0536495 1922 Dengler S. - Gerlach
0536496 1922 Gerland - Hohenadel
0536497 1922 Hohenberger - Kohl, Anna
0536498 1922 Kohl, Augusta - Mantha, A.
0536499 1922 Mantha, J. - Pelsmann, F.
0536500 1922 Pelsmann, J. - Sellmer, H.
0536501 1922 Sellmer, L. - Stef, N.
0536502 1922 Stefan, B. - White, F.
0536505 1922 White, G. - Z
0473152 Bd. 139-140 1923 A - G
0473153 Bd. 141-142 1923 H - L
0473154 Bd. 143-144 1923 M - S
0473155 Bd. 145-146 1923 Sch - Z
0473156 Bd. 147-148 1924 A - K
0473157 Bd. 149-150 1924 L - Z
0473158 Bd. 151-152 1925 A - K
0473159 Bd. 153-154 1925 L - Z
0473160 Bd. 155-156 1926 A - H
0473161 Bd. 157-158 1926 J - S
0473162 Bd. 159 1926 Sch - Z
0473163 Bd. 160-162 1927 A - M
0473101 Bd. 163-164 1927 N - Z
0473164 Bd. 165-166 1928 A - J
0473165 Bd. 167-168 1928 K - S
0473166 Bd. 169 1928 Sch - Z
Bd. 169A 1929 Jan - Mar
0473167 Bd. 170 1929 Mar - Dec A - L
0473168 Bd. 171 1929 Mar - Dec M - Z
0473169 Bd. 172 1930 A - K
0473170 Bd. 173 1930 L - Z
0473171 Bd. 174-175 1931
0473172 Bd. 176 1932
0473173 Bd. 177 1933
0473174 Bd. 178 1934

[15-Year Index, 1856-1871] [Direct Indexes] [Indirect Indexes] [Indirect
Lists]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Direct Lists

Film # Contents

0470833 Bd. 1 1850
Bd. 2 1851
0470834 Bd. 3 1852 Feb - 1852 Jul
Bd. 4 1852 Jul - 1852 Dec
0470835 Bd. 5 1853 Jul - 1854 Apr
0470836 Bd. 6-7 1854 Apr - 1854 Dec
0470837 Bd. 8 1855 Jan - 1855 Nov
0470838 Bd. 8 1855 Jan - 1855 Nov
Bd. 9-10 1856 Feb - 1856 Dec
0470839 Bd. 11 1857 Feb - 1857 Dec
0470840 Bd. 12 1858 Mar - 1858 Nov
Bd. 13 1859 Feb - 1859 Nov
0470841 Bd. 14-15 1860 - 1861
0470842 Bd. 16 1862
0472894 Bd. 17 1863
0472895 Bd. 18 1864
0472896 Bd. 19 1865
0472897 Bd. 20 1866
0472898 Bd. 21 1867
0472899 Bd. 22 1868
0472900 Bd. 23 1869
0472901 Bd. 24 1870
0472902 Bd. 25 1871
0472903 Bd. 26 1872 Jan - 1872 Jun
0472904 Bd. 27 1872 Jul - 1872 Dec
0472905 Bd. 28 1873 Jan - 1873 Jun
0472906 Bd. 29 1873 Jul - 1873 Dec
0472907 Bd. 30-31 1874
0472908 Bd. 32 1875
0472909 Bd. 33 1876
0472910 Bd. 34 1877
0472911 Bd. 35 1878
0472912 Bd. 36 1879
0472913 Bd. 37 1880 Jan - 1880 Jun
0472914 Bd. 38 1880 Jul - 1880 Dec
0472915 Bd. 39-40 1881 Jan - 1881 Jun
0472916 Bd. 41-42 1881 Jul - 1881 Dec
0472917 Bd. 43 1882 Jan - 1882 Mar
0472918 Bd. 44 1882 Apr - 1882 Jun
0472919 Bd. 45-46 1882 Jul - 1882 Dec
0472920 Bd. 47-48 1883 Jan - 1883 Jun
0472921 Bd. 49-50 1883 Jul - 1883 Dec
0472922 Bd. 51-52 1884 Jan - 1884 Jun
0472923 Bd. 53 1884 Jul - 1884 Dec
0472924 Bd. 54 1885 Jan - 1885 Jun
0472925 Bd. 55 1885 Jul - 1885 Dec
0472926 Bd. 56 1886 Jan - 1886 Jun
0472927 Bd. 57 1886 Jul - 1886 Dec
0472928 Bd. 58 1887 Jan - 1887 Jun
0472929 Bd. 59 1887 Jul - 1887 Dec
0472930 Bd. 60 1888 Jan - 1888 Apr
0472931 Bd. 61 1888 May - 1888 Jun
0472932 Bd. 62 1888 Jul - 1888 Dec
0472933 Bd. 63 1889 Jan - 1889 Jun
0472934 Bd. 64-65 1889 Jul - 1889 Dec
0472935 Bd. 66-67 1890 Jan - 1890 Jun
0475678 Bd. 68 1890 Jul - 1890 Sep
0475679 Bd. 69 1890 Oct - 1890 Dec
0475680 Bd. 70 1891 Jan - 1891 Mar
0475681 Bd. 72-74 1891 May - 1891 Jul
0475682 Bd. 75 1891 Aug - 1891 Sep
0475683 Bd. 76 1891 Oct - 1891 Dec
0475684 Bd. 77-78 1892 Jan - 1892 Apr
0475685 Bd. 79-80 1892 May - 1892 Jun
0475686 Bd. 81 1892 Jul - 1892 Sep
0472936 Bd. 82 1892 Sep - 1892 Dec
0472937 Bd. 83-84 1893 Jan - 1893 Jun
0472938 Bd. 85-86 1893 Jul - 1893 Dec
0472939 Bd. 87 1893 Dec - 1894 Jun
0472940 Bd. 88 1894 Jul - 1894 Dec
0472941 Bd. 89 1895 Jan - 1895 Jun
0472942 Bd. 90-91 1895 Jul - 1895 Dec
0472943 Bd. 92-93 1896 Jan - 1896 Jun
0472944 Bd. 94 1896 Jul - 1896 Sep
0472945 Bd. 95 1896 Oct - 1896 Dec
0472946 Bd. 96 1897 Jan - 1897 Jun
0472947 Bd. 97 1897 Jul - 1897 Dec
0472948 Bd. 98 1898 Jan - 1898 Jun
0472949 Bd. 99-100 1898 Jul - 1898 Dec
0472950 Bd. 101 1898 Dec - 1899 Mar
0472951 Bd. 102-103 1899 Apr - 1899 Jun
0472952 Bd. 104 1899 Jul - 1899 Aug
0472953 Bd. 105-106 1899 Sep - 1899 Dec
0472954 Bd. 107-108 1900 Jan - 1900 Mar
0472955 Bd. 109-110 1900 Apr - 1900 May
0472956 Bd. 111-112 1900 Jun - 1900 Aug
0472957 Bd. 113 1900 Aug - 1900 Sep
0472958 Bd. 114-115 1900 Oct - 1900 Dec
0472959 Bd. 116-117 1901 Jan - 1901 Mar
0472960 Bd. 118-119 1901 Apr - 1901 May
0472961 Bd. 120-122 1901 Jun - 1901 Aug
0472962 Bd. 123-124 1901 Sep - 1901 Oct
0472963 Bd. 125-125 1901 Nov - 1901 Dec
0472964 Bd. 127-128 1902 Jan - 1902 Feb
0472965 Bd. 129-130 1902 Mar - 1902 Apr
0472966 Bd. 131-132 1902 May - 1902 Jun
0472967 Bd. 133-135 1902 Jul - 1902 Sep
0472968 Bd. 136-138 1902 Oct - 1902 Dec
0472969 Bd. 139-140 1903 Jan - 1903 Feb
0472970 Bd. 141-142 1903 Mar - 1903 Apr
0472971 Bd. 143-144 1903 May - 1903 Jun
0472972 Bd. 145-145 1903 Jul - 1903 Sep
0472973 Bd. 148-150 1903 Oct - 1903 Dec
0472974 Bd. 151-153 1904 Jan - 1904 Mar
0472975 Bd. 154-155 1904 Apr - 1904 May
0472976 Bd. 156-158 1904 Jun - 1904 Aug
0472977 Bd. 159-160 1904 Sep - 1904 Nov
0472978 Bd. 161 1904 Dec
0472979 Bd. 162-164 1905 Jan - 1905 Mar
0472980 Bd. 165-166 1905 Apr - 1905 May
0472981 Bd. 167-169 1905 Jun - 1905 Aug
0472982 Bd. 170-172 1905 Sep - 1905 Nov
0472983 Bd. 173 1905 Dec
0472984 Bd. 174-175 1906 Jan - 1906 Feb
0472985 Bd. 176-177 1906 Mar - 1906 Apr
0472986 Bd. 178-180 1906 May - 1906 Jul
0472987 Bd. 181-182 1906 Aug - 1906 Sep
0472988 Bd. 183-184 1906 Oct - 1906 Nov
0472989 Bd. 185 1906 Dec
0472990 Bd. 186-187 1907 Jan - 1907 Feb
0472991 Bd. 188-189 1907 Mar - 1907 Apr
0472992 Bd. 190 1907 May
0472993 Bd. 191-192 1907 Jun - 1907 Jul
0472994 Bd. 193-194 1907 Aug - 1907 Sep
0472995 Bd. 195 1907 Oct
0472996 Bd. 196-197 1907 Nov - 1907 Dec
0472997 Bd. 198-200 1908 Jan - 1908 May
0472998 Bd. 201-203 1908 Jun - 1908 Sep
0472999 Bd. 204-206 1908 Oct - 1908 Dec
0473000 Bd. 207-208 1909 Jan - 1909 Mar
0473001 Bd. 209-211 1909 Apr - 1909 Jun
0473002 Bd. 212-214 1909 Jul - 1909 Sep
0473003 Bd. 215-216 1909 Oct - 1909 Nov
0473004 Bd. 217 1909 Dec
0473005 Bd. 218-220 1910 Jan - 1910 Mar
0473006 Bd. 221-222 1910 Apr - 1910 May
0473007 Bd. 223-225 1910 Jun - 1910 Aug
0473008 Bd. 226-227 1910 Sep - 1910 Oct
0473009 Bd. 228-229 1910 Nov - 1910 Dec

Combined Direct and Indirect Lists

Film # Contents

0473010 Bd. 230-232 1911 Jan - 1911 Mar
0473011 Bd. 233-235 1911 Apr - 1911 Jun
0473012 Bd. 236-238 1911 Jul - 1911 Sep
0473013 Bd. 239 1911 Oct
0473014 Bd. 240-241 1911 Nov - 1911 Dec
0473015 Bd. 242-243 1912 Jan - 1912 Mar
0473016 Bd. 244-246 1912 Apr - 1912 May
0473017 Bd. 247-248 1912 Jun - 1912 Jul
0473018 Bd. 249-250 1912 Aug - 1912 Sep
0473019 Bd. 251-252 1912 Oct - 1912 Nov
0473020 Bd. 253 1912 Dec
0473021 Bd. 254-255 1913 Jan - 1913 Feb
0473022 Bd. 256-257 1913 Mar - 1913 Apr
0473023 Bd. 258-259 1913 May
0473024 Bd. 260-261 1913 Jun
0473025 Bd. 262-263 1913 Jul
0473026 Bd. 264-265 1913 Aug
0473027 Bd. 266-267 1913 Sep
0473028 Bd. 268-269 1913 Oct
0473029 Bd. 270-272 1913 Nov - 1913 Dec
0473030 Bd. 273-274 1914 Jan - 1914 Feb
0473031 Bd. 275-276 1914 Mar - 1914 Apr
0473032 Bd. 277-279 1914 May - 1914 Jun
0473033 Bd. 280 1914 Jul - 1914 Aug

1914 Sep - 1919 Dec No indexes or lists due to World War I.

0473034 Bd. 281 1920
0473035 Bd. 282 1921 Jan - 1921 Jun
0473036 Bd. 283 1921 Jun - 1921 Aug
0473037 Bd. 284 1921 Aug - 1921 Oct
0473038 Bd. 285 1921 Oct - 1921 Dec
0473039 Bd. 286 1922 Jan - 1922 Apr
0473040 Bd. 287 1922 Apr - 1922 Jun
0473041 Bd. 288 1922 Jun - 1922 Sep
0473042 Bd. 288A 1922 Aug - 1922 Oct
0473043 Bd. 289 1922 Sep - 1922 Oct
0473044 Bd. 290 1922 Sep - 1922 Nov
0473045 Bd. 291 1922 Nov - 1922 Dec
0473046 Bd. 292-292 1923 Jan - 1923 Feb
0473047 Bd. 295 1923 Apr
0473048 Bd. 296-297 1923 May - 1923 Jun
0473049 Bd. 298-300 1923 Jun - 1923 Jul
0473050 Bd. 301-303 1923 Aug - 1923 Sep
0473051 Bd. 304-306 1923 Sep - 1923 Oct
0473052 Bd. 307-309 1923 Nov - 1923 Dec
0473053 Bd. 310-311 1924 Jan - 1924 Feb
0473054 Bd. 312-313 1924 Mar - 1924 Apr
0473055 Bd. 314 1924 May
0473056 Bd. 315-316 1924 Jun - 1924 Jul
0473057 Bd. 317-318 1924 Aug - 1924 Sep
0473058 Bd. 319-321 1924 Oct - 1924 Dec
0473059 Bd. 322-323 1925 Jan - 1925 Apr
0473060 Bd. 324-325 1925 Apr - 1925 Jul
0473061 Bd. 326-327 1925 Jul - 1925 Sep
0473062 Bd. 328 1925 Sep - 1925 Oct
0473063 Bd. 329-330 1925 Oct - 1925 Dec
0473064 Bd. 331-333 1926 Jan - 1926 Mar
0473065 Bd. 334-335 1926 Apr - 1926 May
0473066 Bd. 336-337 1926 Jun - 1926 Jul
0473067 Bd. 338-339 1926 Aug - 1926 Sep
0473068 Bd. 340-342 1926 Oct - 1926 Dec
0473069 Bd. 343 1927 Jan - 1927 Mar
0473175 Bd. 344 1927 Mar - 1927 Apr
0473176 Bd. 345 1927 Apr - 1927 Jun
0473177 Bd. 346 1927 Jun - 1927 Jul
0473178 Bd. 347 1927 Jul - 1927 Aug
0473179 Bd. 348 1927 Aug - 1927 Oct
0473180 Bd. 349-350 1927 Oct - 1927 Dec
0473181 Bd. 351-353 1928 Jan - 1928 Mar
0473182 Bd. 354-355 1928 Apr - 1928 May
0473183 Bd. 356-357 1928 Jun - 1928 Jul
0473184 Bd. 358 1928 Aug
0473185 Bd. 359 1928 Sep
0473186 Bd. 360 1928 Oct
0473187 Bd. 361-362 1928 Nov - 1928 Dec
0473188 Bd. 363-364 1929 Jan - 1929 Feb
0473189 Bd. 365-366 1929 Mar - 1929 Apr
0473190 Bd. 367 1929 May
0473777 Bd. 368 1929 Jun
0473778 Bd. 368 1929 Jul
0473779 Bd. 370 1929 Aug
0473780 Bd. 371 1929 Sep
0473781 Bd. 372 1929 Oct
0473782 Bd. 373-374 1929 Nov - 1929 Dec
0473783 Bd. 375-376 1930 Jan - 1930 Feb
0473784 Bd. 377-378 1930 Mar - 1930 Apr
0473785 Bd. 379 1930 May
0473786 Bd. 380 1930 Jun
0473787 Bd. 381 1930 Jul
0473790 Bd. 382 1930 Aug
0473788 Bd. 383 1930 Sep
0473789 Bd. 384 1930 Oct
0473791 Bd. 385 1930 Nov - 1930 Dec
0473792 Bd. 386-388 1931 Jan - 1931 Mar
0473793 Bd. 389-390 1931 Apr - 1931 May
0473794 Bd. 391 1931 Jun
0473795 Bd. 392 1931 Jul
0473796 Bd. 393 1931 Aug
0473797 Bd. 394 1931 Sep
0473798 Bd. 395-396 1931 Oct - 1931 Nov
0473799 Bd. 397 1931 Dec
0484973 Bd. 398-399 1932 Jan - 1932 Feb
0473800 Bd. 400 1932 Mar
0473801 Bd. 401-402 1932 Apr - 1932 May
0473802 Bd. 403-404 1932 Jun - 1932 Jul
0473803 Bd. 405 1932 Aug
0473804 Bd. 406 1932 Sep
0473805 Bd. 407 1932 Oct
0473806 Bd. 408-409 1932 Nov - 1932 Dec
0473807 Bd. 410-412 1933 Jan - 1933 Mar
0473808 Bd. 413-414 1933 Apr - 1933 May
0473809 Bd. 415-416 1933 Jun - 1933 Jul
0473810 Bd. 417 1933 Aug
0473811 Bd. 418 1933 Sep
0473812 Bd. 419 1933 Oct
0473813 Bd. 420-421 1933 Nov - 1933 Dec
0473814 Bd. 422-423 1934 Jan - 1934 Feb
0473815 Bd. 424-425 1934 Mar - 1934 Apr
0473816 Bd. 426-427 1934 May - 1934 Jun
0473817 Bd. 428 1934 Jul
0473818 Bd. 429 1934 Aug
0473819 Bd. 430-431 1934 Sep - 1934 Oct
0473820 Bd. 432-433 1934 Nov - 1934 Dec

[15-Year Index, 1856-1871] [Direct Indexes] [Direct Lists] [Indirect Lists]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Indirect Indexes

Film # Contents

1049068 Bd. 1 1855 - 1865
Bd. 2 1866 - 1871
Bd. 3 1872 - 1873
1049084 Bd. 4 1874 - 1879
1049085 Bd. 5 1880 - 1881 Mar
Bd. 6 1881 Apr - 1881 Dec
1049069 Bd. 7 1882 Jan - 1883 Sep
Bd. 8 1883 Oct - 1885 Oct
1049070 Bd. 9 1885 Nov - 1886 Jun
Bd. 10 1886 Jul - 1886 Sep
1049093 Bd. 11 1886 Oct - 1887 Aug
Bd. 12 1887 Sep - 1888 May
1049092 Bd. 13 1888 May - 1888 Dec
Bd. 14 1889
1049091 Bd. 15 1890 Jan - 1890 Aug
Bd. 16 1890 Sep - 1890 Dec
1049090 Bd. 17 1891 Jan - 1891 Jul
Bd. 18 1891 Jul - 1891 Dec
1049089 Bd. 19 1892 Jan - 1892 Jul
Bd. 20 1892 Jul - 1894 Dec
1049088 Bd. 21 1895 - 1903
Bd. 22 1904 - 1906
1049087 Bd. 23 1907
Bd. 24 1908 - 1909
Bd. 25 1910

For indirect indexes after 1910, see the combined direct/indirect indexes.

[15-Year Index, 1856-1871] [Direct Indexes] [Direct Lists] [Indirect
Indexes]
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Indirect Lists

Film # Contents

1049001 Bd. 1 1854 Jun - 1854 Dec
Bd. 2 1855
1049002 Bd. 3-4 1856 - 1857
1049003 Bd. 5-8 1858 - 1861
1049004 Bd. 9-10 1862 - 1863
1049005 Bd. 11 1864
1049006 Bd. 12 1865
1049007 Bd. 13 1866
1049008 Bd. 14 1867
1049009 Bd. 15 1869
1049010 Bd. 16 1870
1049011 Bd. 17-18 1871
1049012 Bd. 19 1872 Mar - 1872 Jul
1049013 Bd. 20 1872 Aug - 1872 Dec
1049014 Bd. 21 1873 Jan - 1873 Apr
1049015 Bd. 22 1873 May - 1873 Aug
1049016 Bd. 23 1873 Sep - 1873 Dec
Bd. 24 1874 Jan - 1874 Mar
1049017 Bd. 25-26 1874 Apr - 1874 Sep
1049018 Bd. 27 1874 Oct - 1874 Dec
Bd. 28 1875 Jan - 1875 Jun
1049019 Bd. 29 1875 Jul - 1875 Dec
Bd. 30 1876 Jan - 1876 Jun
1049071 Bd. 31 1876 Jul - 1876 Dec
1049072 Bd. 32-33 1877
1049073 Bd. 34 1878 Jan - 1878 Jun
1049020 Bd. 35 1878 Jul - 1878 Dec
1049021 Bd. 36-37 1879
1049074 Bd. 38 1880 Jan - 1880 Apr
1049075 Bd. 39 1880 May - 1880 Aug
1049022 Bd. 40 1880 Sep - 1880 Dec
1049023 Bd. 41 1881 Jan - 1881 Mar
1049024 Bd. 42 1881 Apr
1049025 Bd. 43 1881 May
1049026 Bd. 44-45 1881 Jun - 1881 Sep
1049076 Bd. 46 1881 Oct - 1881 Dec
1049077 Bd. 47-48 1882 Jan - 1882 Mar
1049027 Bd. 49-50 1882 Apr - 1882 Jun
1049028 Bd. 51 1882 Jul - 1882 Sep
1049029 Bd. 52 1882 Oct - 1882 Dec
1049030 Bd. 53-54 1883 Jan - 1883 Jun
1049031 Bd. 55-56 1883 Jul - 1883 Dec
1049032 Bd. 57 1884 Jan - 1884 Apr
1049033 Bd. 58 1884 Apr - 1884 Jul
1049034 Bd. 59 1884 Jul - 1884 Dec
1049035 Bd. 60-61 1885 Jan - 1885 Jun
1049036 Bd. 62 1885 Jun - 1885 Sep
1049037 Bd. 63 1885 Sep - 1885 Dec
1049038 Bd. 64 1885 Dec - 1886 Mar
1049039 Bd. 65 1886 Apr - 1886 Jun
1049040 Bd. 66 1886 Jul - 1886 Sep
1049041 Bd. 67 1886 Oct - 1886 Dec
1049042 Bd. 68 1887 Jan - 1887 Jun
1049078 Bd. 70 1887 Jun - 1887 Sep
1049079 Bd. 71 1887 Oct - 1887 Dec
1049043 Bd. 72-73 1888 Jan - 1888 Apr
1049044 Bd. 74 1888 May - 1888 Jun
1049045 Bd. 75 1888 Jul - 1888 Sep
1049046 Bd. 76 1888 Oct - 1888 Dec
1049047 Bd. 77 1889 Jan - 1889 Mar
1049048 Bd. 78 1889 Apr - 1889 Jun
1049049 Bd. 79 1889 Jul - 1889 Sep
1049050 Bd. 80 1889 Oct - 1889 Dec
1049051 Bd. 81-82 1890 Jan - 1890 Apr
1049080 Bd. 83 1890 May - 1890 Jun
1049081 Bd. 84-85 1890 Jun - 1890 Oct
1049052 Bd. 86 1890 Oct - 1890 Dec
1049053 Bd. 87-88 1891 Jan - 1891 Apr
1049054 Bd. 89-90 1891 May - 1891 Jun
1049055 Bd. 91-92 1891 Jul - 1891 Aug
1049056 Bd. 93 1891 Sep
1049057 Bd. 94-96 1891 Oct - 1891 Dec
1190477 Bd. 96-100 1891 Dec - 1892 Apr
1049058 Bd. 100-101 1892 Apr - 1892 May
1049059 Bd. 102-103 1892 Jun - 1892 Jul
1049060 Bd. 104-105 1892 Aug - 1892 Dec
1049061 Bd. 106-107 1893 - 1894
1049062 Bd. 108 1895
1049063 Bd. 109-110 1896
1049064 Bd. 111-112 1897 - 1898
1049065 Bd. 113-115 1899 - 1903
1049082 Bd. 116 1904
1049083 Bd. 117-118 1905 - 1906
1049066 Bd. 119-120 1907 - 1908
1049067 Bd. 121-122 1909 - 1910

For indirect lists after 1910, see the combined direct/indirect lists.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
[Return to top of page] [15-Year Index, 1856-1871] [Direct Indexes] [Direct
Lists] [Indirect Indexes] [Indirect Lists]

----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Last update: 31-Jan-97 (je/mp)
Please forward any comments and additions to this WWW-Page to: WebMaster

Names of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Emigrants 1844-1915

[Image]

Edited by Carol Gohsman Bowen

[Image]

A Brief Introduction

50,000 Mecklenburgers passed through the port of Hamburg from
1851-1860. Most of these sailed on a "bark", a three-masted vessel
with foremast and mainmast square rigged and the third mast fore
and aft rigged. A typical bark is pictured at the left. From 1861 to 1872
another 50,000 people left Mecklenburg. Some of these went to foreign
countries, while others went to different regions of Germany.

The emigration records for Mecklenburg-Schwerin can be found at:

Staatsarchiv Schwerin
Graf-Schack-Allee 2
D-19053 Schwerin
Germany

The Staatsarchiv contains permissions to emigrate
(Auswanderungskonsensakten) for Mecklenburg-Schwerin for the periods
1826-1861 (index only; the originals were destroyed by fire in 1865) and
1862-1914 (originals and indexes). The original documents (release
documents) show the name of each person, their age, birth date, and birth
place. The index normally shows surname, profession, village and record
number.

Mecklenburg-Strelitz: Surviving lists of emigrants for Mecklenburg-Strelitz
begin in 1863. Axel Lubinski (Danziger Strasse 31, D-18107 Rostock,
Germany), a university researcher, has compiled information on 17,000
emigrants from Mecklenburg-Strelitz for the period 1847-1893.

[Image]

The following list represents surnames of about 2,800 of the
Mecklenburg-Schwerin emigrants who were from the district of Schwerin only.
The surnames are in alphabetical order and are in capital letters. The
locality or localities given in lower case after each surname represent the
place or places where emigrants with that surname were from. (This is the
town the emigrant said he or she was from. This could be the actual town he
lived in, the town where his church was located, or the nearest big town.
Keep in mind alternate spellings and misspellings due to transcription
problems.)

This information was taken from Dr. F. W. Niemann's 1941 compilation. He
prepared an alphabetical list of places in the district of Schwerin and
listed the surnames and number of emigrants from those localities. His
compilation was published by Karl Schomaker in the periodical ARCHIV FUER
SIPPENFORSCHUNG, 1962, pp. 265-66, 337-40. These excerpts were printed in
GERMAN GENEALOGICAL DIGEST, Volume 8, Numbers 1 and 2, pp. 30-31, 61-66.

[Image]

A.

ABEN -Seefeld; ABENDROTH - Bendhof, Gross Salitz; ABON - Moltenow; AHLERS -
Petersberg; AHRENS(T) - Crivitz, Demen, Neu Schlagsdorf, Prestin, Roegnitz,
Sandfelt; ALBRECHT - Badow, Consrade, Grambow, Plate, Rosenberg, Wandrum,
Zuelow; ALT - Vietluebbe; ALWART - Duemmerhuette; ANDERS - Gneven; ARFERT -
Neu Meteln; AUGUSTIN - Sukow;

B.

BAALCK - Schossin; BAARESS - Buelow; BAECKER - Barnin; BAECKLER - Sukow,
Tramm; BAHLKE(T) - Duemmerhuette; BALCK - Klein Rogahn; BANZ - Webelsfelde;
BARCK - Wendischhof; BARG - Holldorf, Luebstorf; BARTELS - Banzkow; BARTOLD
- Muehleneichsen; BASS - Zuelow; BAUER(T) - Neu Meteln; BEBER - Alt Meteln;
BECK - Godern; BECKENDORF - Rutenbeck; BECKER - Crivitz; BECKMANN -
Gadebusch, Grambow, Perlin; BEESE - Pampow; BEHNCKE - Peckatel, Uelitz;
BEHRENDT(T) - Gross Salitz; BEHRENS - Duemmerhuette; BENTIN - Neu
Schlagsdorf, Webelsfelde; BERNER - Duemmer, Duemmerstueck; BERNHARD -
Kneese; BERRINGER - Crivitz; BEUTIN - Neu Schlagsdorf; BEUTLER - Crivitz;
BEVERNITZ(T) - Wessin; BILBOW - Crivitz; BLOCK - Demen; BLOHM - Badow,
Gneven; BLOMBERG - Driespeth; BLUMENSTIEL - Dalberg; BOBZIN - Buelow,
Leezen; BOCKHOLDT - Jarmstorf, Renzow; BOCKHOLST - Buelow; BODDIN - Perlin;
BOECKLER - Plate; BOECKMANN - Dalliendorf; BOEHLK - Klein Hundorf; BOEHM -
Banzkow; BOESECKE - Plate; BOESSOW - Rosenow; BOEST - Schoenwolde; BOETHLING
- Drieberg; BOETTCHER - Alt Steinbeck, Frauenmark, Gadebusch, Jarmstorf,
Kladow, Meetzen, Sukow; BOETTGER - Tramm; BOHNHOF - Gross Salitz; BOHNHOFF -
Eulenkrug; BOHNSACK - Veelboeken; BOLD - Pulverhof; BOLDT - Dalliendorf,
Dambeck, Holldorf, Liessow, Neuendorf; BOLLHORN - Seefeld; BOLLOW - Luebesse
, Suelstorf; BOLZMANN - Crivitz, Sukow, Zietlitz; BOOSE - Frauenmark;
BORCHERT - Crivitz, Rutenbeck, Sukow; BORNHOEFT - Eulenkrug, Moltenow;
BOSSELMANN - Liessow; BOTH - Crivitz; BOYE - Frauenmark, Leezen; BRAMMER -
Dalberg; BRASCH - Zickhusen; BREITZMANN - Prestin, Radepohl, Tramm; BREMER -
Grambow; BRETZ - Rosenow; BRETZMANN - Radepohl; BREUEL - Rastow; BREZMANN -
Crivitz; BRINKER - Crivitz; BRINKERT - Moerlin; BRINKMANN - Panstorf;
BRUDERS - Flessenow; BRUEGGMANN - Stralendorf; BRUENING - Klein Salitz,
Mariental; BRUESEHABER - Dambeck; BRUHN - Holthusen; BRUHNS - Vietluebbe;
BRUSE - Herrensteinfeld, Pampow, Wandrum; BUBBERT - Peckatel; BUCHHOLZ - Neu
Schlagsdorf; BUCKENTIN - Boldela, Duemmer, Pampow, Schoenfeld; BUENSOW -
Consrade; BUERGER - Barnin; BUESING - Renzow; BUETZOW - Crivitz; BUHSE -
Vietluebbe; BULL - Frauenmark, Gallentin, Zickhusen; BURDE - Klein Rogahn;
BURLAGE - Breesen; BURMANN - Flessenow; BURMEISTER - Basthorst, Gross
Eichen, Kladow, Pinnow; BURNEISTER - Prestin; BUSCH - Driespeth, Gadebusch,
Kladow, Panstorf; BUSS - Duemmerhuette;

C.

CLASEN - Gross Salitz; CLEMES - Plate; CORDES - Gadebusch; CORDT - Plate;
CORNEHL - Rastow; CRULL - Rutenbeck;

D.

DAELCK - Webelsfelde; DAMMANN - Peckatel; DANIELS - Seefeld; DANKERT -
Gottmannschfoerde, Jarmstorft Kritzow, Zapel; DANKWART - Cambs, Neu
Schlagsdorf; DANNEMANN - Gadebusch; DANNER - Demen; DECHOW - Goldenstaedt;
DETERS - Badegow, Pokrent; DETHLEFF - Zuelow; DETHLOFF - Barnin , Kirch
Stueck; DETTMANN - Alt Steinbeck, Botelsdorf, Dragun , Driespeth, Neu
Dragun, Gadebusch, Gottmannschfoerde, Gross Eixen, Jarmstorf, Renzow,
Schoenfeld, Wandrum; DIECKELMANN - Dorotheenhof; DIEKMANN - Crivitz; DINNIES
- Liessow; DITTMANN - Bruesewitz; DOBBERTIN - Rutenbeck, Tramm, Zittow;
DOEFFKY - Liessow; DOELL - Retgendorf; DOHR - Dalberg; DOPP - Radegast; DOSE
- Muehleneichsen; DOST - Gadebusch; DREFAHL - Buelow, Crivitz; DREIER -
Boldela, Jarmstorf, Kneese; DRENCKHAHN - Duemmerstueck, Gross Welzin; DREWS
- Gadebusch; DRIEVER - Neu Schlagsdorf; DROEGE - Crivitz; DROEGMOELLER -
Gross Salitz; DRUCKHAMMER - Dambeck; DUENNFRUENDT - Liessow; DUERING -
Wendelstorf; DUNCKER - Crivitz; DUNKELMANN - Kneese, Sandfelt; DUWE -
Goddin;

E.

EBERHERD -Suelstorf; EBERLEIN - Crivitz; EBERLIN - Neu Schlagsdorf; EGGERS -
Dragun, Paetrow; EGGERS(T) - Dambeck; EHMCKE - Crivitz, Gadebusch,
Jarmstorg, Meetzen; EHRENBERG - Crivitz; EHRICH - Gadebusch; EICHENFELD -
Crivitz; ERDMANN - Veelboeken; ERICH - Bentin, Roggendorf; EVERS - Meetzen;

F.

FACKLAM - Badow, Neu Luebstorg, Neu Steineck, Nienmark, Schoenfeld,
Zickhusen; FAHRENKRUG - Grambow; FAHSEL - Goddin; FASEL - Gross Salitz; FELS
- Gottmannschfoerde; FELTEN - Ahrenskoek, Langenbruetz; FICK - Cambs,
Guestow; FISCHER - Dambeck, Gallentin, Gneven, Nundorg, Heu Schlagsdorf,
Retgendorf, Rosenhagen, Rugensee; FLOEGEL - Drieberg; FRAHM - Badow,
Grambow, Gross Eixen; FREHSE - Rosenow; FREIENSTEIN - Barnin; FRENTZ -
Walsmuehlen; FRENZ - Gadebusch; FREUCK - Zittow; FREY - Gadebusch; FRIEDRICH
- Crivitz; FROHRIEP - Kneese; FROST - Wessin; FRUENDT - Leezen, Radepohl

G.

GADE - Rastow; GAERBER - Badow; GALEY - Neu Meteln; GAMM - Krudopp; GEESE -
Stralendorf, Zuelow; GERHARD - Roggendorf; GERMANE - Wuestmark; GIELOW -
Crivitz; GLASER - Grauenmark, Gross Salitz; GOLD - Roggendorf; GOLDBERG -
Consrade, Stueck; GOOSMANN - Buelow; GOSSELK - Dalliendorf; GRABBERT -
Dambeck, Neu Meteln, Renzow; GRAMBOW - Plate; GRASENICK - Crivitz;
GRASSMEIER - Gadebusch; GRAU - Crivitz; GREBBIN - Zuelow; GREVE - Crivitz;
GREVSMUEHL - Hof Meteln; GRIEFFENHAGEN - Rosenhagen; GRIEM - Gadow, Dragun,
Gadebusch, Stoellnitz; GROTH - Gross Salitz, Gross Trebbow, Noerlin,
Schoenwolde, Stralendorf, Zuelow; GROVEMANN - Gadebusch; GRUND - Gadebusch;
GRUWE - Dalliendorf; GUELDENER - Gneven; GUESSMANN - Banzkow; GUNDLACH -
Badow, Gadebusch, Soehring; GUSTAEVEL - Bentin, Gadebusch

H.

HACHTEN - Stueck; HAEFKE - Prestin; HAEGER - Crivitz; HAFEMEISTER - Gross
Salitz; HAGELSTEIN - Meetzen, Neuendorf, Pokrent, Renzow; HAGEMANN - Tramm;
HAGEN - Grambow; HAHN - Flessenow; HAMANN - Crivitz, Flessenow,
Rabensteinfeld; HANSEN - Gross Welzin; HARLOFF - Klein Trebbow,
Langenbruetz; HARM - Tramm; HARTEN - Gross Salitz; HASE - Tramm; HASENFANG -
Dutzow; HASSELBRING - Wittenfoerden; HASSELFELD - Alt Schlagsdorf, Buchholz
bei Ventschow, Goerslow; HEIDELCK - Drieberg; HEIDELK - Alt Meteln, Hof
Meteln, Luebstorf; HEIDEN - Rastow; HEITMANN - Stralendorf; HELFERT -
Crivitz; HELMS - Rabensteinfeld; HENNING - Muehleneichsen; HERRLICH - Neu
Meteln; HEUSER - Neu Schlagsdorf; HEYDEL - Jarmstorf; HILDEBRANDT -
Vietluebbe; HILLIGER - Dambeck; HIMM - Moltenow; HINRICHS - Botelsdorf;
HINTZ - Bahlenhueschen, Crivitz, Jarmstorf, Rutenbeck; HINTZE - Banzkow,
Crivitz; HINZ - Prestin; HOEFERT - Goldenstaedt, Pulverhof, Suelstorf;
HOEFFERT - Crivitz; HOEPNER - Gadebusch; HOEPPNER - Wendelstorf; HOLLAND -
Gneven; HOLST - Dutzow; HOLZ - Guestow, Jarmstorf, Schoenfeld; HOPP -
Crivitz; HORN - Passow; HORSTMANN - Meetzen, Neu Steineck; HOSSMANN -
Crivitz; HOTH - Veelboeken; HRODE - Crivitz; HUEBNER - Duemmerhuette,
Kobande; HUEBSCH - Gadebusch; HUENERJAEGER - Dalliendorf; HUNDT -
Duemmerhuette; HUSSFELD - Duemmerhuette

I.

IHDE - Banzkow, Kneese, Plate, Rastow, Suelte, Uelitz; IHNS - Meetzen;
ISERLOTH - Jarmstorf

J.

JAAKS - Schossin; JACOBS - Paetrow; JAHNCKE - Rastow, Veelboeken; JAHNKE -
Hindenberg; JAKOBS - Botelsdorf; JENSS - Jarmstorf; JENTZ - Gadebusch;
JENTZEN - Roggendorf; JESSEL - Moerlin; JIENCKE - Crivitz; JOERNS - Jamel;
JOERSS - Rosenow; JOHANNSSEN - Veelboeken; JOOST - Duemmerhuette; JOSEF -
Liessow; JOST - Duemmerstueck; JUERGENS - Gadebusch; JUERSS - Alt Steinbeck,
Jarmstorf, Meetzen, Stoelinitz

K.

KAELER - Alt Schlagsdorf, Badow, Barnin, Basthorst, Grambow, Holthusen,
Jarmstorf, Kneese, Meetzen, Pokrent, Schoenwolde, Zittow; KAGEL -
Stralendorf; KAHL - Neu Schlagsdorf; KAMIN - Suelte; KANTER - Langenbruetz;
KAPHINGST - Rampe, Zittow; KARBERG - Duemmer; KARK - Dambeck; KARSTEN -
Consrade, Dalberg, Goddin; KASSOW - Botelsdorf; KASTORF - Sukow; KATZBERG -
Sukow; KELLERMANN - Veelboeken; KELLING - Gadebusch; KETELHOHN - Gross
Bruetz; KIENKE - Ganzow, Kneese; KINMONT - Rastow; KIPPE - Alt Meteln;
KLAEHN - Crivitz, Plate; KLAMFOTH - Brahlstorf; KLASEN - Kobande,
Petersberg; KLATT - Duemmerstueck; KLEIN - Jarmstorf; KLENOW - Crivitz;
KLENZ - Jarmstorf, Kneese; KLEVERSAHT - Rosenow; KLOCKOW - Crivitz; KLOTH -
Crivitz; KLUEVER - Boldela; KLUTH - Rastow; KNAAK - Prestin, Rutenbeck;
KNERR - Consrade; KNESE - Alt Meteln; KNESER - Driespeth; KOCH - Gadebusch,
Gross Welzin, Jarmstorf, Muehleneichsen, Neuendorf, Veelboeken; KOCK -
Muehleneichsen; KOEHLER - Barnin, Wittenfoerden; KOEHN - Buelow, Neu Dragun,
Neuendorf; KOEHNCKE - Badegow; KOELN - Jarmstorf; KOENER - Wandrum; KOENKE -
Kladow; KOEPKE - Consrade; KOERNER - Badow, Gross Salitz; KOESTER -
Dalliendorf; KOHLMESS - Gross Trebbow; KOLLMORGEN - Cramenshagen, Cramon;
KONERT - Gross Salitz, Schoenwolde; KOOP - Goddin, Kneese; KORDT - Plate;
KORF - Roggendorf; KORT - Neu Schlagsdorf; KOSNITZ - Gadebusch; KOSSEL -
Gadebusch; KRAMER - Crivitz; KRAMP - Walsmuehlen; KRAVAK - Goddin; KRAWAK -
Neu Meteln; KREI - Goerslow; KRELLENBERG - Roegnitz; KREMER - Consrade, Hof
Meteln; KREY - Tramm; KRICKHUHN - Moerlin; KROEGER - Kothendorf, Nienmark,
Radegast, Wittenfoerden; KROEPELIN - Bruesewitz; KROEPLIN - Gross Trebbow;
KRUEGER - Botelsdorf, Kothendorf, Liessow, Roggendorf; KRULL - Boldela,
Dambeck, Demen, Kleefeld, Sukow; KRUSE - Mirow; KUHLMANN - Badow, Gadebusch,
Gross Trebbow, Rastow, Zickhusen; KUHS - Hindenberg

L.

LADEWIG - Crivitz; LAGRIM - Petersberg; LAHL - Holldorf; LAHN - Alt
Schlagsdorf; LAND - Runow; LANGE - Barnin, Gadebusch, Jarmstorf, Pampow,
Warsow; LANGHOFF - Bentin, Gadebusch; LANGPAAP - Cramenshagen, Caramon,
Dalliendorf, Goddin, Muehleneichsen; LANGPAP - Gross Eichen, Pampow; LANKOW
- Kneese; LAU - Crivitz, Veelboeken, Vietluebbe; LAUDAHN - Rastow; LEEGE -
Dragun; LEETSCH - Goerslow; LEETZ - Rutenbeck; LEHMBECKER - Neu Suelstorf;
LEHMKUKL - Dalberg; LEHSTEN - Suelstorf; LEIDEMANN - Gadebusch; LEMBCKE -
Gross Bruetz; LEMBKE - Rampe; LEMM - Pokrent; LENDER - Gneven; LENDT -
Wessin; LENZ - Vietluebbe; LEONHARDT - Gadebusch, Wandrum; LEVERMANN -
Gadebusch; LICHTENBERG - Badow; LINDEMANN - Alt Steinbeck; LINDENBERG -
Banzkow; LIPPERT - Gottesgabe; LITZMANN - Gadebusch; LOEHN - Gottesgabe;
LOHSE - Rampe; LORENZ - Pampow, Pokrent; LUBAHN - Mirow; LUCKOW - Neu
Schlagsdorf; LUDE - Langenbruetz; LUEBBE - Crivitz, Kritzow; LUEBBERT -
Badow; LUEBCKE - Crivitz, Ganzow, Neuendorf, Radegast, Roegnitz, Roggendorf;
LUEDEMANN - Dalliendorf, Dambeck, Gallentin, Holldorf, Meetzen, Neu
Steineck; LUEDERS - Botelsdorf, Gadebusch, Peckatel, Rampe

M.

MAACK - Uelitz; MAAK - Duemmerhuette, Kothendorf; MAAS - Zuelow; MAEHLCKE -
Zuelow; MAHNCKE - Luebstorf, Rampe; MAIBAUM - Crivitz; MALCHOW - Frauenmark,
Settin; MALLY - Alt Meteln; MALTZAHN - Gross Trebbow; MANSFELD - Neu
Schlagsdorf; MARTENS - Gadebusch; MARTIENSSEN - Heu Schlagsdorf, Rugensee;
MAU - Barnin, Neuendorf, Pokrent, Prestin, Wessin; MAUSFELD - Langenbruetz;
METELMANN - Duemmerhuette; METT - Dutzow, Gadebusch; MEY(I)ER - Boeken;
MAYER - Botelsdorf, Pingelshagen, Radepohl; MICHAELSEN - Gadebusch; MIECKOW
- Pinnow; MILLIES - Kleefeld; MOELLER - Bendhof, Gadebusch, Ganzow, Gross
Rogahn, Gross Salitz, Guestow, Klein Rogahn, Klein Salitz, Krems Mariental,
Mirow, Ortkrug, Paetrow, Peckatel, Plate, Retgendorf, Roggendorf, Uelitz,
Vietluebbe; MOLL - Gaedebehn Wandrum; MOLLER - Crivitz; MOOR - Gadebusch,
Gross Eixen; MOSE(S) - Settin; MUELLER - Augusten hof, Holldorf, Rutenbeck;
MULL - Badow; MUSSFELD - Rosenow

N.

NAGEL - Driespeth, Wessin; NATH - Klein Salitz; NECKEL - Zapel; NEHLS -
Barnin, Buelow, Dambeck, Demen, Herrensteinfeld, Hof Meteln; NEUMANN -
Roggendorf; NEVERMANN - Bahlenhueschen, Grambow; NIEBUHR - Neu Meteln,
Rutenbeck; NIEMANN - Barnin, Crivitz, Dalberg, Gadebusch, Radepohl,
Schoenfeld, Webelsfelde; NIEMARCK - Webelsfelde; NIENDORF - Banzkow, Plate;
NOELTING - Plate; NUETZEL - Dalberg, Drieberg

O.

OESTREICH - Dambeck; OHMANN - Goehren; OHMS - Goddin, Muehleneichsen;
OLDENBURG - Alt Meteln, Dalliendorf, Peckatel; OLDENSCHLAEGER - Gross Eixen;
OLHOEFT - Gadebusch, Steinmannshagen; OLLENSCHLAEGER - Muehleneichsen; ORTH
- Moltenow; ORTMANN - Demen

P. and Q.

PAEGEL - Crivitz; PAEGELOW - Neu Meteln; PAEPCKE - Crivitz; PAGEL -
Jarmstorf, Mariental, Roggendorf; PARBS - Frauenmark, Meetzen; PARZMANN -
Prestin; PASSOW - Banzkow; PAULI - Crivitz; PAULS - Driespeth; PECHT -
Retgendorf; PEEZOLD - Dalliendorf; PEGEL - Crivitz; PEGUM - Ortkrug;
PETERMANN - Gross Salitz; PETERS - Demen, Holthusen, Lehmkuhlen, Pampow,
Roegnitz, Uelitz, Wittenfoerden; PIETSCHMANN - Crivitz; PINGEL - Dambeck,
Prestin; PLATH - Crivitz, Gadebusch; PLOG - Dragun, Webelsfelde; POEHL -
Pingelshagen; POHL - Vietluebbe; POMMER - Gahlenhueschen; POMMERENCKE -
Klein Rogahn, Kothendorf; PORATH - Wittenfoerden; PRNHAGENN - Wendelstorf;
PRAEVKE - Dambeck; PRESTIN - Bahlenhueschen, Gadebusch; PRIGNITZ - Pokrent;
PROATH - Wuestmark; PROESCH - Hindenberg; PRUESSMANN - Roggendorf; PUESTOW -
Dalberg, Gross Eixen, Muehleneichsen, Rosenow, Wendelstorf; QUADE - Crivitz

R.

RAHN - Ahrensboek, Dambeck; RAMBOW - Pokrent; RATCKE - Retgendorf; RATH -
Gadebusch, Veelboeken; RATHKE - Augustenhof, Schossin; RATHS - Crivitz;
RATSACK - Tramm; RATZEBURG - Meetzen; REDDING - Barnerstueck; REGLIN -
Vietluebbe; REHBERG - Leezen; REIHER - Gadebusch; REIM - Retgendorf; REIMERS
- Crivitz; REINCKE - Gadebusch, Leezen, Meetzen; REINHOLD - Crivitz; REITER
- Gadebusch, Meetzen; REPPENHAGEN - Tramm, Zuelow; RESTORF - Radegast;
REUSCH - Badow, Neu Steineck; REWOHL - Holthusen; RHODE - Barnin; RICHTER -
Alt Schlagsdorf, Crivitz; RICKERT - Gross Salitz, Klein Welzin, Radegast;
RIECK - Vietluebbe; RIECKHOFF - Alt Schlagsdorf, Jarmstorf, Langenbruetz;
RIEKHOFF - Alt Meteln, Buchholz bei Ventschow, Gottmannschfoerde, Moerlin,
Muehleneichsen; RIESS - Rosenberg; ROBRAHN - Basthorst; RODENBECK - Rampe;
ROEPCKE - Boldela, Crivitz; ROEPER - Gadebusch; ROGGENBAU - Guestow;
ROGGENBAUM - Ganzow; ROGGENDORF - Leezen; ROGGMANN - Duemmerhuette; ROHDE -
Bahlenhueschen; ROSE - Runow; ROSENOW - Crivitz, Dutzow; ROTHLAENDER -
Sandfelt; RUESCH - Duemmerhuette; RUESS - Rutenbeck, Sukow, Tramm; RUHKIECK
- Driespeth; RUHMOHR - Dalliendorf; RUSSBUELDT - Prestin

S.

SACHS - Gneven; SAGERT - Radepohl; SASS - Crivitz, Jarmstorf, Klein Rogahn,
Stralendorf; SAUER - Vietluebbe; SAUMANN - Duemmerhuette; SCHAEDING -
Dambeck; SCHAEFER - Crivitz; SCHARFENBERG - Badow, Barnin, Soehring,
Stoellnitz; SCHARNWEBER - Dutzow, Gallentin, Guestow; SCHARRENBERG -
Drieberg; SCHEEFE - Pampow; SCHEEL - Grevenhagen; SCHEFE - Suelstorf;
SCHELLE - Pokrent; SCHLAEFKE - Dalliendorf; SCHLEE - Kladow; SCHLEEDE -
Runow; SCHLICHT - Pingelshagen; SCHLICHTING - Badow, Neuendorf, Perlin,
Schlagfort/Pokrent; SCHLUENZ - Frauenmark, Goddin; SCHLUETER - Badow;
SCHMAHL - Schoenfeld; SCHMEDEMANN - Rastow; SCHMIDT - Bahlenhueschen,
Crivitz, Gneven, Kleefeld, Langenbruetz, Rabensteinfeld, Zapel; SCHMILL -
Wuestmark, Zapel; SCHNAEKEL - Alt Schlagsdorf; SCHNEIDER - Zuelow; SCHNOOR -
Bruesewitz, Luetzow, Schoenfeld; SCHNUEGGER - Roggendorf; SCHNUR - Dragun,
Drieberg, Stralendorf; SCHOMAKER - Neu Luebstorf, Neu Meteln; SCHOTT - Klein
Salitz; SCHROEDER - Augustenhof, Badegow, Banzkow, Bentin, Buelow,
Cramenshagen, Cramon, Drieberg, Gadebusch, Grambow, Gross Salitz, Mirow, Neu
Schlagsdorf, Plate, Prestin, Renzow, Rutenbeck, Sukow, Tramm, Veelboeken,
Webelsfelde, Zapel; SCHUETT - Gross Salitz, Schoenfeld; SCHULDT -
Gruesewitz, Gross Eixen, Jamel, Langenbruetz, Ortkrug; SCHULENBURG - Kladow;
SCHULT - Alt Schlagsdorf, Godern, Prestin, Veelboeken; SCHULTZ - Alt Meteln,
Badegow, Crivitz, Gross Welzin; SCHULZ - Ganzow, Plate, Tramm, Wessin;
SCHUMACHER - Alt Meteln, Buchholz bei Ventschow, Gross Salitz,
Herrensteinfeld, Kaeselow, Leezen, Nuendorf, Plate, Pokrent; SCHWABE -
Kleefeld; SCHWANBECK - Tramm; SCHWANCK - Goerslow; SCHWANK - Tramm; SCHWARZ
- Buchholz bei Gadebusch, Neuendorf, Rutenbeck; SEECKT - Grambow; SEEHASE -
Webelsfelde; SEESTAEDT - Ganzow; SEIFFER - Gadebusch; SELIGMANN - Gadebusch;
SIEBUHR - Pampow; SIEGMANN - Gneven; SIEWERT - Buelow; SIGGELKOW - Godern,
Luetzow, Neu Luebstorf; SIGLOW - Jarmstorf; SIMON - Wessin; SONNENBERG -
Bahlenhueschen; SORGENFREY - Bahlenhueschen; SPIEGEL - Driespeth; STANGE -
Gallentin; STARKE - Pampow; STEIHAGEN - Gadebusch; STEIN - Buelow; STEINBECK
- Crivitz; STEINFATTSTEINHAGEN - Webelsfelde, Zittow; STENDER - Dutzow,
Roggendorf, Wittenfoerden; STERNBERG - Crivitz; STIER - Glessenow,
Raabensteinfeld; STOLTENBERG - Passow; STOSSLOFF - Badow; STRATMANN - Runow;
STROHKIRCH - Pingelshagen; STUDEMUND - Dutzow; STUEVE - Goldenstaedt,
Lehmkuhlen, Pokrent, Prestin; SUCH - Brahlstorf; SUCHLAND - Gallentin; SUHR
- Gottesgabe; SUSE - Luetzow

T. and U.

TACKMANN - Plate; TADDEL - Duemmerstueck; TAEGE - Rutenbeck; TARDEL -
Jarmstorf, Roggendorf; TESCH - Badow; TESS - Badow; THIEL - Buerbeck;
THIESSENHUSEN - Rosenow; TIEDT - Peckatel; TIMM - Alt Steinbeck, Consrade,
Demen, Neu Steineck; TIMMERMANN - Petersberg; TOERBER - Moerlin; TONAGEL -
Dalberg, Rubow; TOPP - Badegow, Buelow; TRAMPE - Rastow; TREU - Alt
Schlagsdorf, Gadebusch, Rubow; TRILCK - Walsmuehlen; TROST - Prestin;
TUECKSEN - Crivitz; TURBAN - Moltenow; UECKERMANN - Zittow

V.

VATTSCHILD - Wittenfoerden; VICK - Cambs, Klein Welzin, Muehleneichsen,
Veelboeken; VIEHSTAEDT - Neu Suelstorf, Radepohl, Wessin; VIERING -
Holldorf; VITENSE - Grambow; VOELTER - Gallentin; VOSS - Barnin, Bendhof,
Crivitz, Dambeck, Meetzen, Passow, Rastow, Zuelow

W.

WAACK - Ahrensboek; WAAK - Kritzow; WAEHLERT - Dalliendorf; WAETKE -
Dalberg; WAGNER - Duemmerhuette, Kneese; WALSLEBEN - Tramm; WANDSCHNEIDER -
Barnin, Plate, Tramm; WANGELIN - Buelow, Demen; WANZENBERG - Badow;
WARKENTIN - Basthorst; WARNCKE - Gallentin, Moltenow, Prestin, Rutenbeck,
Veelboeken, Wessin, Zuelow; WARNEMUENDE - Tramm; WEBER - Badow, Guestow,
Soehring; WEEDEN - Peckatel; WEGENER - Pinnow; WEGNER - Barnin; WEHDE -
Stoellnitz; WEIDEMANN - Meetzen; WEISS - Paetrow; WENDEL - Badegow; WENDLAND
- Gross Salitz, Klein Salitz; WENDLER - Paetrow; WENDT - Roenkenhof; WENZEL
- Alt Steinbeck; WESFAL - Duemmerhuette; WESTFAHL - Crivitz, Dambeck,
Schoenwolde; WICKBORN - Rutenbeck; WIDEMANN - Meetzen; WIECHHORST -
Frauenmark, Gross Salitz; WIECHMANN - Consrade, Schoenwolde; WIEDOW -
Holldorf; WIEDSTRUCK - Renzow; WIEG - Renzow; WIEK - Hindenberg, Neuendorf;
WIENCKE - Bendhof, Gadebusch, Gross Welzin, Rabensteinfeld, Wakenstaedt;
WIESE - Bruesewitz, Buerbeck; WIETZ - Gross Trebbow; WIGGERS - Tramm; WILCK
- Godern, Langenbruetz, Tramm; WILCKEN - Gadebusch, Pampow, Retgendorf,
Stueck; WILDE - Grevenhagen; WISMAR - Peckatel; WITT - Neu Steineck;
WITTENBURG - Schoenfeld, Suelte; WOEHL - Dalberg, Grambow, Klein Welzin;
WOEHLER - Dalliendorf, Dambeck; WOESTENBERG - Luebesse, Rastow; WOHLERS -
Gadebusch; WOLF - Tramm; WOLLITZ - Klein Salitz; WOLTER - Crivitz; WUESTHOFF
- Crivitz; WUESTNEY - Wittenfoerden; WULF - Schoenfeld; WULFF - Bentiin,
Gadebusch, Kaeselow, Klein Salitz, Kneese, Mariental; WUNDEROW - Demen

Z.

ZARS - Kladow; ZELCK - Leezen, Panstorf; ZENG - Pingelshagen; ZESS -
Vietluebbe; ZIMMERMANN - Petersberg; ZINCK - Crivitz

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Subject: Re: _GEO_
Date: Wed, 30 Jun 1999 09:21:52 +0200 (CET)
From: geo@genealogy.net
To: sherbournedale@imagina.com

Prefix: Plate

Plate
GKZ : 13 0 33 430
County : | +---- Schwerin {SN}
Land : +--------- Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
ZIP : 19086
Popul : 1900
Locat : 53d31m N 11d28m E
Maps : TK25 2434 Schwerin-W?stmark
TK50 L2534 Crivitz
Euro Mc27

Plate (Kr L?chow-Dannenbe)
Part of: L?chow
GKZ : 03 3 54 018
County : | | +---- L?chow-Dannenberg {DAN}
RegBez : | +------- L?neburg
Land : +--------- Niedersachsen
ZIP : 29439
Locat : (L?chow) 52d58m N 11d09m E
Maps : TK25 3032 L?chow
TK50 L3132 Salzwedel
Euro Ma31

Platehof (Westf)
Part of: L?denscheid
GKZ : 05 9 62 032
County : | | +---- MSrkischer Kreis (L?denscheid) {MK}
RegBez : | +------- Arnsberg
Land : +--------- Nordrhein-Westfalen
ZIP : 585??
Locat : (L?denscheid) 51d13m N 7d38m E
Maps : TK25 4711 L?denscheid
TK50 L4710 Hagen
Euro Hd41

Platenhof
GKZ : 12 0 37 880
County : | +---- Perleberg {PER}
Land : +--------- Brandenburg
ZIP : 19348
Locat : (Perleberg) 53d03m N 11d52m E
Maps : TK25 2937 Perleberg
TK50 L2936 Perleberg
Euro Mf30

Platenlaase
Part of: Jameln
GKZ : 03 3 54 011
County : | | +---- L?chow-Dannenberg {DAN}
RegBez : | +------- L?neburg
Land : +--------- Niedersachsen
ZIP : 29479
Locat : (Jameln) 53d03m N 11d05m E
Maps : TK25 2932 Dannenberg-S?d
TK50 L2932 Dannenberg (Elbe)
Euro Ma30

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Privacy Policy. Last updated: 3/22/1999 15
SubjectAuthorDate Posted
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