Any language is a changing thing. You might have seen 1700s and 1800s English and smiled at the spellings -- Ye Olde WerkeShoppe. Spelling and grammar wasn't as precise as it became in the 20th century. The style of the letters complicates things; the "h" had a strong descender, for example, in Johann. So when I saw it in ?atharina, I realized that Katharina was the only name that would fit that style of "K". A first letter of B looking like a lowercase b threw me for a good 2 months. S looking like some kind of loop -- but I digress. An ancestor of a friend experienced FOUR changes to the spelling of his name in his 80 years. Č changed to Cz, which was the German version. The vowels au changed to ou. Finally, it ended up with plain old C at the beginning of the name. So the 4 versions I can remember are Čaufal, Czaufal, Czoufal (maybe), and finally, Coufal.
To answer your question, you solve some problem, and tuck it into your memory for later use, in case it comes up again. If you want to investigate, I'd suggest you look through the various message board for examples, copy and paste a transcription and the translation into a document, and compare slowly. A link to actapublica or other archive is generally supplied, and then you can go back and compare to the handwriting. The vocabulary for genealogy is limited, and you will be please with how quickly you pick things up.