Where EXACTLY was he born? I can check the place name for surnames. Anyone will tell you that census records are the least accurate of all documentation that you will find. There is a reason why it is suggested that researchers are told to find three pieces of documentation per family member being researched.
BTW I think you are building a barrier for yourself that might not have to be there.
Could it be that the surname wasn't Russian, because it was Ukrainian or Belarusyn. At the turn of the previous century, when the Great Migration took place, both Ukrainians and Belarusyn immigrants would have been listed as Russian, because technically AT THAT TIME they were Russian citizens, but ethnically they either Ukrainian or Belarusyn.