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Elisavetgrad Pogrom - April 1881

Replies: 28

Re: Elisavetgrad Pogrom - April 1881

Posted: 27 Jan 2013 9:26PM GMT
Classification: Query
Edited: 27 Jan 2013 9:30PM GMT
I just transliterated GGrandfather's surname, Tchernegovski/Tchernigovsky = Черниговскый (in Russian), and realized that this is a surname rooted in geography. The surname is taken from town name, Chernigov (to date still the regional seat - today called Chernihiv > Ukraine) in appx 1836. Chernigov would have likely been the birthplace of the founder of the dynasty. The surname translates to PERSON FROM CHERNIGOV.

Historically, Jews did not have permanent family surnames at all. Within the Jewish community, patronymics were used, such as David ben (son of) Joseph or Miriam bat (daughter of) Aaron. Names in that form are still used in synagogue and in Jewish legal documents.

Surnames are a relatively new phenomenon among Ashkenazim (East European) Jews. Jews are a people whose calendar is nearly 6,000 years old, but surnames were mandated for Russian Jews only in the 19th century, less than two hundred years ago.

In the Russian Pale of Settlement, Jews were required to take formal surnames at various times in different places. Czar Alexander I unsuccessfully mandated that Jews adopt surnames in 1804. However, it was not until 1836 that all Russian Jews had surnames. By 1844, they were compelled to enter their names in a public register.
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Geopolitics+
http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/russia/xgovchernigov.html

CHERNIGOV:
A city in Russia; capital of the government of the same name. The Jewish settlement at Chernigov is one of the oldest of the Ukraine. In the thirteenth century a rabbi, Isaac (Itze) of Chernigov, is mentioned, who spoke the Russian language. (Harkavy,"Yevrei i Slavyanskie Yazyky," p. 11). In 1623 King Ladislaus banished the Jews from the "voyevodstvos" (military districts) of Chernigov and Syeversk. The cause was probably jealousy on the part of the Christian merchants and tradesmen; the edict declaring that the Jews caused great damage to their business. However, soon after 1623 the Jews again came to Chernigov. In 1648, at the time of Khmielnicki's revolt, the whole Jewish population of Chernigov was exterminated by the Cossacks.

In the later histories of Chernigov indications are found of the hostility of the people toward the Jews. Thus, in 1665 the noblemen of Chernigov sent an embassy to the Council of Warsaw, mentioning in their instructions that justice called for the expulsion of the dishonest Jews from the country, or at least for the imposition of a Jewish poll-tax.

According to the census of 1897 there were in the town of Chernigov about 11,000 Jews in a total population of 27,006. The chief occupations of the Jews are industrial and commercial. In the neighborhood many tobacco plantations and fruit-gardens are owned by Jews. There are in Chernigov 1,321 Jewish artisans, including 404 tailors and seamstresses, but the demand for artisan labor is limited to the town. There are 69 Jewish day-laborers, almost exclusively teamsters. But few are engaged in the factories.

The small charitable institutions of Chernigov were combined, in 1899, in the Committee of Relief for the Jewish Poor; but the different trade groups of the Jewish population have their own charitable institutions also. Thus the bakers, storekeepers, teamsters, tailors, and "melammedim" (teachers of Hebrew) have separate funds from which loans without interest, and, in cases of necessity, gratuitous help, are obtained.

The Jewish educational establishments include a Talmud Torah (115 pupils); a primary school for boys (40 pupils); a private school for girls (57 pupils); and there are 45
ḥadarim, where about 450 boys and 70 girls are taught Hebrew.
Bibliography:
Regesty i Nadpisi, i. 403, 404, 466;
Budushchnost, 1900, No. 42.
Jewish Encyclopedia 1906

Chernigov
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_000...

http://www.zum.de/whkmla/region/russia/xgovchernigov.html

http://www.bloodandfrogs.com/2011/03/jewish-genealogy-basics...

http://lists.rootsweb.ancestry.com/index/other/Ethnic-Jewish...

Once you complete your inquiry in Kirovograd and come to a wall, I would suggest moving your inquiry to Chernihiv. Following are just a few example registers available. There are many others as well.

Locality/Town: CHERNIGOV
Raion/Region: CHERNIGOV
Oblast/District: CHERNIGOV
Country: UKRAINE
Archive Name: STATE ARCHIVE OF CHERNIGOV OBLAST
Archive Locale: CHERNIGOV
Archive Type: ARCHIVES
Document Type: CENSUS
Year List: 1829; 1897; 1917; 1921-1923; 1925
Fond/Opis/Delo: 205/2/4; 206/2/1, 6; P-90/1/2-13; P-2751; P-65/1/1600

Locality/Town: CHERNIGOV
Raion/Region: CHERNIGOV
Oblast/District: CHERNIGOV
Country: UKRAINE
Archive Name: STATE ARCHIVE OF CHERNIGOV OBLAST
Archive Locale: CHERNIGOV
Archive Type: ARCHIVES
Document Type: BIRTH
Year List: 1875; 1877-1884; 1889-1894; 1898; 1906; 1910; 1912-1913; 1919-1920
Fond/Opis/Delo: 679/10/1244, 1252, 1255, 1261; 679/3/383

Locality/Town: CHERNIGOV
Raion/Region: CHERNIGOV
Oblast/District: CHERNIGOV
Country: UKRAINE
Archive Name: STATE ARCHIVE OF CHERNIGOV OBLAST
Archive Locale: CHERNIGOV
Archive Type: ARCHIVES
Document Type: KAHAL/JEWISH COMMUNITY
Year List: 1863-1864
Fond/Opis/Delo: 205/1/149, 178

Locality/Town: CHERNIGOV
Raion/Region: CHERNIGOV
Oblast/District: CHERNIGOV
Country: UKRAINE
Archive Name: STATE ARCHIVE OF CHERNIGOV OBLAST
Archive Locale: CHERNIGOV
Archive Type: ARCHIVES
Document Type: HOLOCAUST
Year List: 1941-1943
Fond/Opis/Delo: P-3001, 3013
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GGrandfather was likely just another man with a big hole in his heart, like so many fleeing Russia were at the time.

If you any questions feel free to contact me here.


SubjectAuthorDate Posted
heinrich53 30 Jun 2013 10:31PM GMT 
ivjones 26 Dec 2013 3:23AM GMT 
bizgia 18 May 2011 8:49PM GMT 
ivjones 7 Jan 2013 1:35AM GMT 
Mighthelp 25 Jan 2013 10:53PM GMT 
ivjones 27 Jan 2013 7:32AM GMT 
Mighthelp 27 Jan 2013 10:22PM GMT 
ivjones 28 Jan 2013 12:14AM GMT 
Mighthelp 28 Jan 2013 4:26AM GMT 
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