Genealogy has to based on facts, not assumptions, as we both know. It's possible that the Sarah Palmateer who married James Boomhower was actually the legitimate daughter of James Palmateer and Martha Ann Scott, or an unknown mother, or her mother may even have been Catherine Van Valkenburgh, thus the reason for the separation between James Palamateer and Martha Ann Scott and his subsequent marriage to Catherine. After all, why else would Sarah be living with James and Catherine on the 1861 census? Therefore, I tend not to agree that she was a daughter of Caton Palmateer, but who knows with this mixed up family?
Martha Ann Scott's place of birth was stated to be Ernesttown and there were Scott families living there at the time of her birth. Therefore, there is another unknown as to why the 1851 census for Sheffield shows some of the children living with the family as Scott and 2 that just state "do" after their name - did this mean Scott or Palmateer? Was Martha Ann previously married to a Scott, or was there an error made for the names of the Scott children on this census. On Linda Corupe's transcribed 1851 census for Sheffield she has listed all of the children as Palmateer. Did she have a reason that we don't know about for doing this?
On the same page of the census are Seth Laraby, his wife and family. It just seems to me that there was a lot of hanky-panky going on between these families but without documented proof we will most likely never know the truth.