This is a long post and you will likely have to write the info down and compare for yourself. I have copies of all the census returns I talk about or mention.
The Sarah Palmateer that married James Boomhour is the Sarah Palmatier that is supposedly the illegitimate child of Caton Palmateer and this Mohawk Woman (likely from Tyendinaga Mohawk Reserve) as you have pointed out in the last part of your post.
On the 1861 Census. Caton Palmateer's daughter Sarah Eliza is living with the family and is listed as Ester Palmateer at 1 year of age. She shows up on the 1871 Census as Sarah Palmateer at the age of 11. Caton's older daughter Elizabeth Ann is 9 years old on the 1861 census and 18 on the 1871 Census. She is the one that married Noah King.
I agree with you that Sarah Eliza (Caton's legitimate daughter named Sarah) married Eli McCumber.
But this does not explain the presence of the Sarah E. Palmatier (age 9) living with Gilbert Woodcock's family in Kennebec Township on Page 7 of the 1861 Kennebec Census. She would not have been born in time for the 1851 Census. This Sarah E. Palmatier is noted as being born in Sheffield Twp., on that 1861 census. She is also noted as a non-member of the Gilbert Woodcock Family.
John Palmateer and Rebecca Varty do not have a daughter named Sarah or Eliza.
Henry Palmateer and second wife Almyra Abrams have a daughtrer named Sarah (Sarah Ann) who eventually married John Meeks on Aug. 8, 1881. So that rules out both Henry Palmateer and John Palmateer as the father of the Sarah Palmatier who married James Boomhour.
James Palmatier married first Martha Scott (nee Smith) just before the 1851 Census and is noted as the father of the children all carrying the surname Scott on the 1851 Census. There is no Sarah amongst those children. That entire family disappears for the 1861 Census probably due to the sensational rape trial involving Job Laraby and Elizabeth Garrison (the daughter of Catherine "Ceffy" (nee VanVolkenburgh)) who was first married to Elias Garrison.
James Palmatier left his first wife Martha Scott (nee Smith, daughter of Jacob Smith) to marry Ceffy Laraby (Catherine Van Volkenburgh) on Feb. 29, 1866.
In an ironic twist of fate, Elizabeth Garrison (daughter of Elias Garrison and James second wife), married Jacob Smith Polmatier (the son of Martha Scott and her unknown first husband surnamed Scott).
It is rather obvious that Jacob Smith Palmatier was named after Jacob Smith his grandfather (Martha's father). James Palmateer and Catherine VanVolkenburgh are living with Catherine's children (by Job Laraby or Elias Garrison) right beside Elizabeth Garrison and Jacob Smith Polmatier on the 1871 census. Elizabeth Garrison continuously gives her name as Elizabeth Milligan on the birth registrations of the early children of her marriage to Jacob Smith Palmatier.
It is not until the later marriages of her children that we fially find out that she is actually Elizabeth Garrison, the one who was raped by Job Laraby her stepfather at the time of her mother's marriage to Job Laraby.
In any regard, there is no Sarah Palmateer ever born to James Palmateer or Martha Scoott (nee Smith). So that rules him out as the father of the Sarah Palmateer who married James Boomhour.
That means that the Sarah Palmateer who did marry James Boomhour was the illegitimate daughter of Caton Palmateer by the Mohwak woman (and supported by the fact she is never living in the proper home of Caton Palmateer).
The Sarah Palmatier who marries James Boomhour is however for the period of the 1871 Census found living with James Palmateer and Catherine Van Volkenburgh at the age of 16 (age is not correct because they did not know her age as she was not the daughter of either of them). The Sarah Palmatier cannot be the daughter of James Palmater and Catherine VanVolkenburgh because even if her age is correct, James did not marry Catherine until Feb. 29, 1866. So if this Sarah Palmatier was James Palmateer's daughter or Catherine's daughter, she would have been 11 or even 10 years old in 1866. So she cannot be James' adopted daughter or Catherine's adopted daughter unless they adopted her just prior to the 1871 Census. This is supported by the fact that this Sarah Palmatier is living with the Gilbert Woodcock family on the 1861 Census as a non-member of the family.
There is no record of this Sarah's marriage to James Boomhour because she was illegitimate, in the eyes of the church and probably to both families. It was more than likely one of those hush-hush (people knew and probably did not want to tell) type of marriages you could get away with in the backwoods of Kennebec Township. This is further supported by the fact that Sarah Palmatier and James Boomhour eventually move to Faraday Township in Hastings County for the 1891 Census to raise their family. It is also possible they went to New York State and got married. Who really knows.
But by the 1881 Census in Kennebec Township, James Boomhower and Sarah Eliza Palmatier are married and have two children. She is noted as Sary Lisa Boomhower on the 1881 Census and the oldest child is three meaning a possible marriage in 1876 or 1877. But no record exists, at least in Ontario for the marriage or even the birth of the two children prior to the 1881 Census born to James and Sarah.
The death registration from 1907 conspicously does not mention the parents of Sarah Eliza Boomhower (Palmatier). By 1907, parents were usually being listed on the death registrations, at least on those registrations that were closer to larger towns like Kingston, Belleville, Picton or Napanee. Again, the backwoods of Faraday (closest town of any size would have been Bancroft and it was likely under 1000 citizens).
The death record stating Sarah was born in Kennebec does not hold up when the 1861 census says she was born in Sheffield and was not a member of the Gilbert Woodcock family. Caton Palmatier is actually in Barrie and Clarendon Twp., for the 1861 Census. But almost anyone would agree the men often went on trips to sell their farm goods or buy tools for the farm - lots of time to have a nice little clandestine affair on the side while wifey-poo stayed at home and looked after the children.
Let me know what you think.
Dennis (email directly at firstname.lastname@example.org