Hi Jeff - don't know if you located more info on this yet, but here's my input.
Goldburg (note change in spelling) is in the Pahsimeroi Valley in eastern central Idaho. I believe it is in Lemhi county (county seat = Salmon, Idaho.) On my USGS Topo maps, it is on Goldburg Creek, at about 44 deg 23 min N, 113 deg 38 min W at an elevation of over 6200 feet. Patterson is the closest current town, such as it is.
The Challis and Salmon areas were important early gold, silver and lead mining locations in the West. Unfortunately (or fortunately, as the case may be), they never had sufficient transportation available to make them centers of population.