When you click on your name of interest, the "Patent Details" page tells you where he filed on the land-upper right under "miscellaneous details". They were to go to the "nearest land office", which most often was no where near the land itself! (We have one filed for in an eastern county, but the land was in the farthest south west corner)
The land had to be lived on and improved for five straight years for the patent to be issued-so he filed that many years before the document that you see. After the issue of the patent, he then would have had to register the land under his ownership with the county-must pay those taxes don't ya know, and from there the records exist in county files.
It is possible to obtain "the land entry file" from the National Archives-which has all the paperwork the person filled out to make his "claim" on the land; but I myself have never attempted to get one.