Ok, talk about a way to connect the dots...
Charity Adkinson/Atkinson/Adkison/Adkisdon/Adkisson is found as head of house in the 1830 and 1840 censuses, living near Stephen Elliott, and by 1850, Charity is living in his household, where she still lives in 1860 and 1870.
Often this would be a parent living with her children. Since Stephen's surname is Elliott, It would seem Charity is likely the mother of Sarah.
I found this record:
Family Data Collection - Births about Elizabeth Adkisson
Name: Elizabeth Adkisson
Father: Jordan Adkisson
Mother: Charity Ezell
Birth Date: 16 Mar 1819
Thus proof that Jordan Adkisson married Charity Ezell.
on ancestry.com, family tree
Raines Beasley Ferrell Purcell
Has a photo on this tree of the flyleaf of a Bible "given to Jordon by his maternal grandmother, Charity Ezell Atkison." The inscription in handwritting clearly reads, "J.R.Goins his book presented to him by his grandmother Charity Adkison" "This August Thr 20 1876"
Some family trees have J.R. Goins (Jordan Reese Goins) as a son of Andrew Goins and Lucy B. Elliot, however if Lucy B. Elliot is the daughter of Sarah and Stephen Elliott (I don't have documentation of this), that would make J.R. Charity's great-grandson, rather than her grandson.
I lean towards the relationship found in some other family trees that Jordan Reece Goins is probably the son of Isaac Goins and Mary Adkison (Mary Lucy "Polly" Adkison in some trees). Again, I have no documentation for this relationship, but the theory is that Mary Adkison was a daughter of Charity and Jordan Adkison. This would make J.R. Charity's grandson, which fits the Bible inscription.
This establishes the relationship that Charity Ezell married Jordan Adkison, that Charity was likely the mother of Sarah who married Stephen Elliott, And that Charity Ezell-Adkison was the mother of Elizabeth Adkison and probably also the mother of Mary Adkison-Goins.
on ancestry.com, family tree
Jeanetta's O'Brien Family Tree
Has a photo on this tree of a Bible inscription that reads:
Bourne February 12
The caption of the photo says:
"Bible belonging to William Alexander Cauthen Posted on internet by Joseph Cauthen (2009 )"
I suspect this is another page of the same Bible previously mentioned that was given to J.R. Goins by his grandmother Charity Adkison.
A William Alexander Cauthen is believed to have married an Elizabeth Adkisson, and they had a son named William Alexander Cauthen (according to various posted family trees). I have so far been unable to document this Adkisson-Cauthen marriage, but since the Bible belonged to a William Alexander Cauthen, this is logical.
So now we know that Charity was Charity Ezell when she married Jordan Adkisson, and that she was related to the Cauthen family who had the Bible with the inscription about James Ezell's birth, and since Charity was at one time an Ezell, with dates and locations, it is logical to conclude that James Ezell was related to Charity Ezell.
I'm still looking for documentation, but the general consensus among most researchers is that James Ezell was Charity's son, and that Sarah who married Stephen Elliott was also an Ezell, rumor being that EZELL was Charity's first husband. When combined with the Maury Co., TN deed conveying land to William Adkison from "John Adkison Steven Elliot and Sarah Elliot his wife, W.A. Cauthen and Elizabeth Cauthen his wife Issac M. Goins and Mary Goins his wife" These conclusions make sense.
This brings us to the following conclusions:
Charity (maiden name unknown) married
2)Jordan Adkisson (and variant spellings)
I am still obviously missing some documentation. I'd love to hear from anyone who can support these conclusions with further documentation.