Carroll County, Arkansas was Osage territory,
~Boone County was formed
County Seat: Harrison
Established: April 9, 1869
Parent Counties: Carroll, Marion
Population: 36,903 (2010 Census)
Area: 591.2 square miles (2000 Census)
Historical Population as per the U.S. Census:
Located in the Ozark Mountain highlands, Boone County has endured struggles from its creation. Political, racial, and union conflicts have drawn national attention, often overshadowing the contributions of the county’s residents and businesses
Louisiana Purchase through Early Statehood
Although they had no communities in the area, the Osage had claims to what would become Boone County until an 1808 treaty, and they often hunted there. Part of Boone County was in a Cherokee reservation which existed from 1818 to 1828. Most of the Cherokee lived further south in the reservation, away from the Osage presence to the north.
During this time, many name and boundary changes occurred. Becoming part of the United States with the Louisiana Purchase, the area was part of Missouri Territory in 1812 when Louisiana was admitted as a state. When Arkansas became a territory, the area was part of Lawrence and Izard counties before Carroll County was established in 1833. The land that became Boone County had a small strip in Marion County and a much larger portion in Carroll County. The Arkansas legislature created Boone County from Carroll in 1869 and added the Marion County portion in 1875.
Native Americans, forced into Indian Territory along the Trail of Tears, crossed the land when it was part of Carroll County. A post office was established in 1836 at Crooked Creek, the town that would become Harrison. Some Arkansas residents gathered their wagons at Beller’s Stand, near Caravan Springs south of present-day Harrison, to head toward California where they intended to buy land and build new lives. However, their journey came to an abrupt end when, on September 11, 1857, a mob of Mormons ambushed the caravan at Mountain Meadows, Utah, and killed most of the people. The event is known as the Mountain Meadows Massacre.
Civil War through Reconstruction
The Civil War hit the border region hard. The region, originally against secession, eventually joined the rest of the state in secession. Families divided: some fought for the Union, some for the Confederacy. Bushwhackers and jayhawkers (both often referred to as bushwhackers in this area) were a problem. Confederates gathered to plan and execute raids into Missouri. The Union destroyed Dubuque and its niter works, and the town never recovered. On Crooked Creek, Union forces destroyed a powder mill. Many people fled to Missouri, and the area’s population decreased.
After the war, residents petitioned the legislature to divide Carroll County. The legislature created Boone County on April 9, 1869. Land was taken from Marion County on the east and Carroll County on the west. Boone County’s northern boundary was designated part of the state line separating Arkansas from Missouri. Although no documentation supports it, the most widely quoted belief is that the county was named for frontiersman Daniel Boone. But some say the name is a misspelling of boon, because it was thought that the creation of a county would be a boon to residents.
Lines drawn between residents during the Civil War often resurfaced in the new county. When the county seat was selected, it was not in the established town of Bellefonte but in the new town of Harrison, where Confederate beliefs were not as strong. Towns developed. Lead Hill grew up near the site of what had been Dubuque. Smelters were built to process lead from the area. With the popularity of the healing waters in Eureka Springs in Carroll County, Boone County’s Elixir Springs was promoted.
Post Reconstruction through the Gilded Age
The post-Reconstruction era began with the resurgence of conflict between the former Confederates and the Republicans that controlled Boone County. The ex-Confederates attempted to move the county seat from Republican-controlled Harrison to Bellefonte. After a countywide vote, it remained at Harrison.
Lead and zinc mines began to appear. Fruit crops consisted of peaches, pears, plums, and the popular “Boone County apples.” Cotton was a big cash crop until declining prices cut production in half.
Early Twentieth Century
The 1900s brought change with the arrival of the Missouri and North Arkansas Railroad. The railroads provided easier access to the county. Towns developed along the tracks, and existing towns grew. Alpena Pass requested a post office in 1901. Farmers grew more crops to sell because they had access to a larger number of buyers. Lumber became a big part of the economy as lumber mills and woodworking facilities appeared along the tracks. The production of cream started a new economic endeavor. When the St. Louis, Iron Mountain, and Southern Railroad set its tracks into Bergman, Boone County experienced an influx of people. By 1912, the Missouri and North Arkansas line had moved its headquarters to Harrison.
The African-American population, which had shown limited growth in each census since 1870, decreased from 142 in 1900 to seven in 1910. The sudden change was attributed to race riots that occurred in Harrison, which were thought to have been caused by the arrival of workers constructing the new rail line. Also, the quick conviction of a young black man for the assault of an elderly white woman brought a rapid decline in the black population of the county. Soon, establishments providing higher wages for black workers closed. By the time the convicted man was hanged, most black citizens had fled the county. No black residents were listed on the 1940 census.
World War I led to an increase in mining. Lead and zinc were needed for the war effort. Railroads allowed shipping from the region. The mining of zinc in Northern Arkansas, which included Boone County, tripled, peaking by 1917. The increase in production and the arrival of miners contributed to the county’s economy. Boone County men answered the call to fight in Europe. As in the rest of the nation, Liberty Bond rallies were held. Women knitted socks and sweaters to be sent to servicemen.
The county garnered national attention on February 18, 1921, when Henry Starr and accomplices tried to rob the Peoples National Bank in Harrison. Starr was shot by former bank president W. J. Myers and died four days later from the wound. Later that month, a strike of the Missouri and North Arkansas line occurred when workers protested reduced wages. Anger toward strike breakers resulted in threats and assaults. Trains were derailed, bridges were destroyed, and union officials were ordered out of town. Forced into receivership, the line was sold, and it reopened with lower wages. The strike continued, ending in 1923, when a mob hanged Ed Gregor on a railroad bridge and other strikers left town. More positive national attention appeared when Earl Rowland, pioneer aviator from Valley Springs, won an air race, the Ford Reliability Tour, in 1925.
In the 1920s and 1930s, Harrison was home to district headquarters for the Arkansas Highway Commission. Canning factories processed locally grown vegetables. Tourism increased as visitors hiked the Hemmed-in Hollow trail and toured Diamond Cave in neighboring Newton County. A levee was built to contain Crooked Creek, which occasionally overflowed. Bridges and roads were built, and some roads were widened. But the hard times forced many families to seek jobs outside the county.
World War II through the Faubus Era
Boone County resident Jack Williams posthumously received the Medal of Honor for courageous action at Iwo Jima during World War II. Progress followed World War II as a natural gas line was brought into Harrison and an airport was built. Duncan Parking Meter Company (today Duncan Parking Technology) moved to Boone County in 1947. They continue to produce parking meters that are used across North America. The voter-approved hospital was completed in 1950, the same year a garment factory located in the county. A food-processing plant followed. Livestock and lumber were the primary economic producers. Chalkboard maker Claridge Products and Equipment, Inc., moved to Boone County in 1955. Pace Industries, a die-casting facility, incorporated in its present location in Boone County in 1970.
A dam on the White River was completed in 1951, resulting in Bull Shoals reservoir and the relocation of Lead Hill and two highways. Diamond City grew at the edge of Bull Shoals Lake. After years of problems, strikes, and changes in ownership and names, the Missouri and North Arkansas Railroad closed.
County residents took an active part in political life. John Paul Hammerschmidt was elected Third District congressman in 1967. He served twenty-four years. J. Frank Holt served as state attorney general in 1961. After his resignation, Jack Holt Jr. completed the term; he became chief justice of Arkansas in 1985.
With a continually increasing population came educational and economic benefits. Voters approved the creation of North Arkansas Community College, now North Arkansas College. Tyson Foods constructed a feed mill in Bergman to handle the increase in poultry production and provide for more growers. The building of a regional distribution center for the U.S. Postal Service created more jobs. Dogpatch USA, an amusement park in Newton County, helped Boone County’s tourism industry. The Buffalo River headquarters is located in Harrison and draws many tourists to the area each year.
The Knights of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), based in Harrison, drew national attention to Boone County in the late 1980s and 1990s. Conflicts began when Thom Robb was elected grand wizard. Stories of the purchase of land for a headquarters at Zinc, national meetings, and the request to adopt a one-mile section of U.S. 65 kept the county in the news. Although the KKK participated in the Adopt-A-Highway program from August 1993 to July 1997, it has ceased participation.
The economy still is driven by agriculture and wood products, as well as service and manufacturing. The top three employers are FedEx Freight, North Arkansas Regional Medical Center, and Pace Industries, an aluminum-die-casting company. In 2004, it ranked sixth in the state in beef cattle. The area draws many retirees. Tourism continues to play a role in the economy; travelers venture into Boone County as they head north on U.S. 65 to Branson, Missouri, or take a leisurely drive along Arkansas Scenic 7.
For additional information:
Boone County Historian. Harrison, AR: Boone County Historical and Railroad Society (2003–).
Boone County Historical and Railroad Society. History of Boone County. Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Co., 1998.
Blevins, Brooks. Hill Folks: A History of Arkansas Ozarkers and Their Image. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
Hanley, Ray, and Diane Hanley. The Postcard History Series: Carroll and Boone County, Arkansas. Chicago: Arcadia Publishing, 1999.
Rea, Ralph R. Boone County and Its People. Van Buren, AR: Press-Argus, 1955.
C. J. Miller
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Naming our Counties (Grades 2-8)Last Updated 8/9/2011
About this Entry: Contact the Encyclopedia / Submit a Comment / Submit a Narrativehttp://www.ozarkscivilwar.org/regions/carrollhttp://www.nationalatlas.gov/mapmaker?AppCmd=CUSTOM&Laye...
Formed: November 1, 1833
County Population 1860: 9,053
Slave Population 1860: 330
Civil War Engagements
- Skirmish at Carrollton, January 10, 1863
- Skirmish at Crooked Creek, February 5, 1864
- Suffered constant guerrilla warfare
Johnson’s New Illustrated Family Atlas, 1865
Image courtesy of the David Rumsey Historical Map Collection
Before white settlement, Carroll County, Arkansas was traditionally Osage territory. In the 1800s, the Osage shared the area with the Cherokee and Choctaws who were pushed into the area from the Southeastern United States. White settlement began in earnest in the 1830s, most coming from the mountains in Tennessee and Kentucky. Early settlers included William and Charles Sneed and Louis Russell, William Coker, David Williams, Martin, John, and Samuel Standridge, Jerry and Jacob Meeks, Squire and Richard Blevins, George Stone, and Robert Dawson.
Carroll County is located on the Missouri-Arkansas border in the Northwestern part of the state. Fresh water sources are plentiful and include King’s River, Dry Creek, Indian Creek, White River, Osage Creek, Long Creek, and Yocum Creek. Prairies, including Big Prairie and Scott’s Prairie, provide abundant grazing land for livestock. The area contains natural silver and iron deposits, and the soil is suitable for growing wheat and corn.
Carroll County was officially established on November 1, 1833. It was named after Charles Carroll, of Carrollton Tennessee, who was among those who signed the Declaration of Independence. Burnnett Cheatham and John S. Blair were in charge of naming the county seat and established it at Carrollton. There were several prominent citizens during the county’s early years. Henderson Lafferty helped Carrollton’s development. Squire Wilson Ashbury built the first ferry across the White River, a quarry to supply building stone to Carroll and surrounding counties, and built Beaver Inn (later renamed Riverside Inn). Blackburn Henderson Berry settled in present day Berryville, which was the county’s second county seat. Arthur A. Baker became the first doctor in the county and donated land for the first public school. Jacob Meek helped save several important documents from destruction during the Civil War and later became Berryville’s mayor. Tilford Denton became court clerk, county treasurer, and fought in the Civil War as a Captain-Quartermaster in the Carroll County Militia. He also donated land for the public school. James Fancher served in the Arkansas House of Representatives.
When the Civil War began, most Carroll County residents sided with the Confederacy and voted for secession. Slavery was not a huge issue in Carroll County, but most residents could not fathom going to war with other Southern states. The Carroll County Home Guard formed shortly after Arkansas seceded, and formed four companies under H.B. Fletcher, J.H. Pittman, John Denney, and Leander Hayhurst respectively. These companies took part in the Battle of Wilson’s Creek in Greene County, Missouri. Carroll County men also took part in several other regiments. These included: Company E, 16th Arkansas Mounted Infantry under Captain W.S. Poynor, Company D, 16th Arkansas Mounted Infantry, and Companies K and G, First Regiment Arkansas Volunteer Cavalry under Captain Rowan E.M. Mack and Captain Theodore Youngblood respectively. These regiments took part in the Battle of Pea Ridge in Benton County in March, 1862.
There were many Carroll County residents who refused to take part in the war at all, for either army. They formed the Arkansas Peace Society, sometimes called the Peace Organization Society, which advocated resistance to either army in Carroll and other Arkansas Counties. Several members of this society were arrested in 1861, and the organization disbanded. Several years after the war ended a fierce political debate erupted as the location for the new county seat. The issue was resolved through an election in which Berryville was declared the county seat in 1875. A courthouse was constructed in 1880. A newspaper, the Carroll County Bowlder, was the first printed in the county. It was printed in Carrollton in late 1874 and later moved to Berryville. Carrollton High School, Fairview Academy, and HYPERLINK “http://encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail....
″ Clarke’s Academy provided education in Carroll County. The use of mineral springs in the western part of the county in 1879 brought a rapid population increase in the area. Individuals seeking the healing powers of its waters made Eureka Springs a thriving community.
Browse all collections in Carroll County
Jim Lairr, An Outlander’s History of Carroll County, Arkansas, 1830-1983 (Berryville, AR: Carroll County Historical and Genealogical Society, 1983).
“Carroll County”, The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture, (Little Rock, AR: Central Arkansas Library System), accessed on 3 November 2010,http://encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail....
nty,+north+carolina,+henry+hughey,&source=bl&ots=jw04ETW5gk&sig=nhV5jUjWUJET5f3WDm_BT0-J 2XA&hl=en&ei=S9y6TNK0LcX7lwfR5sySDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5& ved=0CCoQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepage&q=hughey&f=falsehttp://digital.ncdcr.gov/cdm4/results.php?CISOOP1=all&CI...
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Cabarrus County is located in the south central section of the state, and it is bordered by the North Carolina counties of Stanly, Union, Mecklenburg, Iredell, and Rowan. The county was formed in 1792 from part of Mecklenburg County. It was named in honor of Stephen Cabarrus of Edenton, who was a member of the North Carolina State Legislature several times, and Speaker of the House of Commons four times. In 1795 an act was passed naming commissioners to erect a courthouse on the land of Samuel Huie (Hughey) which had already been selected as a proper place for the county seat. They were ordered to lay out the town of Concord, which was incorporated in 1806.
Notes by mlcg Rowan and Note Rowan and Cabarrus are adjoining counties, and it is probably a connection, 10.17.2010
UGHEY, HENRY NTL NC-80-D-190HUGHEY, JACOB NTL NC-80-C-1HUGHEY, ROBERT NTL NC-80-E-102HUGHEY, SAMUEL NTL NC-80-H-623HUGHEY, SAMUEL NTL NC-80-D-168HUGHS, TIMOTHY NTL NC-80-C-3http://www.co.rowan.nc.us/GOVERNMENT/Departments/RowanPublic...
In April of 1753 a petition bearing 348 names from the inhabitants of the western section of the Colony of North Carolina requested that a new county be formed. This county sectioned out from Anson included all land that lay in the Granville Tract north to the Virginia line and was essentially boundless to the west extending to the ‘South Sea’ (Pacific Ocean) or more practically to the Mississippi. Lord Granville’s land was north of the current Rowan County southern boundary and at its eastern end included two-thirds of what is now Guilford County. Not until 1840 did the county reach its present configuration, so for 87 years Rowan was one of the largest and most important counties in North Carolina.
These early residents of Rowan had come primarily from Pennsylvania and Virginia down the Great Philadelphia Wagon Road through the Shenandoah Valley, past Pilot Mountain into the fertile land near the Yadkin River. They were primarily of Scotch-Irish or German extraction. The Scotch-Irish settled primarily in the west and north western sections of the county beginning in the 1740s. The German settlers arrived a few years later establishing communities in the south eastern portion of the county. There were fewer African-Americans in the western portion of North Carolina than the east, but both slave and free blacks appear in the records from the 1750’s on. The primary benefit of the county was to provide a location for a court house nearer than that of Anson to those colonists in the Western part of the state. Our court records begin in June of 1753.
Rowan, the western frontier of the thriving American colony in the 1740’s and 50’s, continued to play an important roll as the nation developed. Rowan and its neighboring county Mecklenburg, with their strong Scotch-Irish Presbyterian bend towards independence and liberty, became the “hornets nest” of the rebellious southern colonies in the War for Independence. The Rowan Resolves declaring the citizens’ support of the town of Boston in its bid against the injustices of the British Crown was the beginning of the Revolution for North Carolina.
Renowned scholars, preachers, patriots and statesmen began careers here. Elizabeth Maxwell Steel restored hope to General Nathanael Greene by supplying money to the Patriot Cause. She was also the mother of John Steele, who was to become the first comptroller of the United States appointed by George Washington and retained by the next two presidents. Spruce Macay, attorney and judge, taught William R. Davie and Andrew Jackson both instrumental in the early years of our republic. Judge Richard Henderson, founder of the Transylvania Company and a colonial judge, along with, Daniel Boone, began their explorations of the western lands that would become Tennessee and Kentucky right here in Rowan around the year 1775. Samuel Eusebius McCorkle, Presbyterian minister and educator was president and teacher of the Salisbury Academy in the early 1790’s.
Judge Richard Henderson, founder of the Transylvania Company, along with Daniel Boone, began their explorations of the western lands that would become Tennessee and Kentucky right here in Rowan. Renowned scholars, preachers, patriots and statesmen began careers here. Elizabeth Maxwell Steel restored hope to General Nathanael Greene by supplying money to the Patriot Cause. She was also the mother of John Steele, who was to become the first comptroller of the United States appointed by George Washington and retained by the next two presidents. Spruce Macay, attorney and judge, taught William R. Davie and Andrew Jackson.
As advocates increased representation for the Western part of North Carolina in state government, Charles Fisher urged support for Calhoun and Jackson through the newspaper The Western Carolinian, founded in 1820. The Carolina Watchman, established in 1832, was created as an anti-Jackson Paper. Both papers were based in Salisbury and served the Western half of the state.
No history of Rowan would be complete without mentioning a few tidbits about industrial development. Gold was discovered in 1799 by John Reed and a booming mining town prospered in the mid 1800’s at Gold Hill. Transportation was an important consideration as well. In 1850 sixteen plank road companies included the Salisbury and Taylorsville Plank Road were chartered. Plank roads were later abandoned in lieu of railroads. Noted Salisburians, Charles F. Fisher, who became president of the Western North Carolina Railroad, John Ellis, Nathaniel Boyden and Burton Craige all took an interest in this growing industry. In August of 1860 Fisher had completed the railroad up to 13 miles east of Morganton.
In May of 1861, North Carolina seceded from the Union and the Confederacy sought a site in Rowan for a military prison. An old cotton mill near the railroad line proved to be a splendid location. In the early part of the war, prisoners were well cared for and even indulged in baseball as is recorded by Otto Boetticher. His drawing at Salisbury Confederate Prison is the first drawing ever of a baseball game in America. Later when the prison became overcrowded and the death rate rose from 2% to 28%, mass graves were used to accommodate the dead. The area of the prison is now a National Cemetery and continues to be a place of historical interest.
Rowan has produced supporters of education from the beginning of its existence. Davidson College owes much of its stature to the men of Rowan who founded and supported it, among them Maxwell Chambers. Many with ties to early Rowan were instrumental in the creation of the University of North Carolina as well. From the small but vital academies like Crowfield and the Female Academy to the Freedman’s School funded by the Friends Philadelphia Freedman’s Aid Society, the Crescent and later Livingstone and Catawba Colleges, education remained vital. Continuing into the 20th century Rowan was the home of renowned educator and women’s rights activist Elizabeth Duncan Koontz. Koontz was the first black elected president of the National Education Association and, under President Nixon, the first black director of the U.S. Department of Labor’s Woman’s Bureau.
The years after the Civil War saw slow growth in industry. Farming as well as tobacco and cotton factories were predominant in the 1880’s. Along with the textile mills, Rowan saw lumber, saw and grist mills prosper. From the Civil War to 1908 the liquor distilling industry flourished as well. In the early 1900’s, the Southern Railroad roundhouse and Spencer shops created a great deal of prosperity for Spencer and other sections of Rowan County. Entrepreneurs founded successful companies such as Stanback, Cheerwine, Food Lion and Power Curbers.
Rowan was home to North Carolina’s great hero Colonel Charles F. Fisher, for whom Fort Fisher is named and who gallantly died on the field at Manassas. His daughter, Frances Fisher Tiernan, better known as writer Christian Reid, later penned the epitaph of North Carolina, the Land of Sky. Other intriguing characters in Rowan’s history include Peter Stewart Ney, Otto Wood, Theo Buerbaum, Elizabeth Dole, Sydney Blackmer, Skinnay Ennes, and Bobby Jackson. Rowan County continues to play an important role in the unfolding history of both North Carolina and the nation.
Please click on the links below to access the Rowan Public Library movie series about the history of Rowan County – Check for available copies of A Ramble Through Rowan’s History.
In colonial times, and even later, county boundaries were not always well-defined in frontier areas. Also, new piedmont counties were being created rapidly during the 1700′s, and county lines changed again and again during this process. In addition, families sometimes lived very close to another county and may have gone there for various reasons. It is good genealogical practice to check records in the neighboring counties for your families.
1850 United States Federal Census
about Ezekiel Hugheyhttp://kmaclub.wordpress.com/carroll-county-arkansas-was-osa... http://thelibrary.org/lochist/periodicals/wrv/v1/n9/f63f.htm