Who were the Cherokee Carters?
What follows is an e-mail response containing Carters on the various Eastern and Western Cherokee Rolls, which I thought others might benefit from. The info was taken from Cherokee Roots Vols. I & II, which I recommend (ISBN 0-9633774-0-X) and thank Bob Blankenship for compiling:
I find an Alexander Carter signed up for the Reservation Roll in 1817 back East. He signed up to get a 640 acre tract of land in the east, in lieu of removing to AR, on the condition that the land would revert to the state upon the death of the reservee. That's the only Carter from the 1817 Roll, but there are a lot of similar sounding surnames and folks by just one name, like Ca Ta Hee, Ca Ta Gees Ka, Ca Hu Can, etc. No Clemens. IN 1817, these Carter surnamed individuals signed up to emigrate to Missouri-- present day AR:
CARTER: Alexander, David, Nancy, Wilson. And there were similar-phonetically-spelled names like Cotannah, Contaka, Cahteclohee, Cahtatie, Cahletseh in addition to these. By 1835 when a census was taken of over 16,000 Cherokees residing in AL, GA, TN and NC who were to be removed to Indian Territory under the treaty of New Echota, David Carter of AL was the only family listed. What happened to cause this list to be different? Some maybe died, or married and changed names, or went West (many), or were thin-blood enough to pass for white and integrated into white society in order to stay put and not lose their land. Of those who had gone West between the time they signed up wanting to emigrate (1817) and 1835, most of the Carters did so on their own initiative, and came west as Old Settlers, not on the Trail of Tears Removal. By 1848 no Carters show up on the NC Mullay Roll. By 1850, Congressional legislation established, I think, a judgment fund and in 1851 the Siler Roll was made, listing Eastern Cherokees entitled to per capita payments. I'm speculating that these were Cherokees who did not get forcibly removed but fought for and won their right to be paid as Cherokees just as did those who went West. Here are listed 56 Carters, all Siler page 178, starting with Andrew, and including two Martha Carters among them. In Tahlequah Oklahoma in the NSU Library at the T.L. Ballenger Room, volunteers of the Indian Territory Historical and Genealogical Society for about $6 will search the red bound Siler Book (the script photocopy of the actual original Siler Roll) and tell you the physical location that shows to be where each Martha lived. (It helped me to look at my ancestor's neighbors, because they had a sibling on one side and another 2 dwellings down the road.) Two Rebecca Carters are also listed. In 1852, Albert Chapman enumerated Cherokees actaully receiving payment based upon the Siler Roll, and all these Carters are NOT listed. (About Carters who did not make it onto the final rolls, I have heard that some were not Indian according to neighbors' testimony, and that when they were rousting people to give their homes away one Carter told the Army where some people lived and was ostracised but gave an affidavit at the Indian Agency saying he didn't do that, and that some Carters were actually Catawbas adopted in by the Cherokees. ) By 1869, no Carters officially among the Eastern Cherokees. By 1883, Adeline Carter, Hester Roll 2934, is found back East among the Cherokees. By 1908, only the Thomas Carter family is found back East on the Churchhill Roll. 1909 the Guion Miller Roll shows a Margaret L. Carter, Miller Roll Number 428; Martha A. Carter 427 and William H. Carter, Miller Roll 429. For the first time, 3 Clemont surnamed individuals show up among the Cherokee Rolls-- Barnie (#498); Callie (#497) and Mary M. (#496). Note the spelling. The Baker Roll of 1924 is the Eastern Cherokee's base Roll for membership in the Eastern Cherokee Tribe. Three Carters appear there: Belvia A.L.H. Carter, Mabel Carter, and Wallace Carter. Roll Numbers 380, 381, 382 respectively.
Need to ask about specific individuals? Give me as much information as possible and I'll look. Once you confirm that your ancestor was on a Roll, find out how complete that Roll is. You may want to order it from AGLL or some place. If it is a Miller Roll Number, I highly recommend you find its Miller Application Number and get a copy. Good luck to all!