Flemming, Karsten, or Carsten, Would you please help with translation of "indsidder" and "sognefoged," and help us understand the duties and/or social position implied?
I can't answer your questions Julie but I'll try to speak to them, below.
--Norman Madsen's Danish English Dictionary says "indsidder" means "tenant farmer"
--Genfinder says "indsidder" means "lodger at a farm"
--My Danish roots says "indsidder" means "lodger/renter/tenant at a farmer or smallholder, but with own household"
--Norman Madsen's Danish English Dictionary says "sognefoged" means parish bailiff
--Genfinder says "sognefoged" means "parish executive officer"
--My Danish Roots says "sognefoged" means "official performing certain judicial functions in the parish. Appointed locally, usually among the most influential freeholders or farmers in the parish"
Norman Madsen's Danish English Dictionary:http://www3.sympatico.ca/colin.swift/danish.htm
Genfinder list of words:http://www.genfinder.com/html/ordbog.htm
My Danish Roots list of words:http://www.mydanishroots.com/census-records-and-enumeration/...
More about indsidder: Early Danish records use different words for different types of "farmer."http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/DENMARK/2009-0...
More about sognefoged: I would caution against asking what did a Danish mayor do in the 1700s. Probably better to just use the word sognefoged, as there is no strictly exact modern-day English equivalent.
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Julie, you asked, "Where did they get those names from?"
"Indsidder Hans Nielsen Langetved" born ca 1773.
The word "indsidder" is not a part of his name. It describes him, like saying Milkman Hans Nielsen, or Police Officer John Smith. "Langetved" is a place name. There's a Langetved village near the other places mentioned in this thread (near the town of Rødding).
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My Danish Roots website offers some great introductory information on Danish genealogy (and I am so tickled you are getting into this!). http://www.mydanishroots.com/surnames-meaning-and-origin