Since posting I have spent the day with 5 different descendants of Solomon and George, via Jonas and Margret inquiring about their information and documentation regarding Lenier. I just photographed the headstones at their graves. They are buried here in Stone County, the WRV in the Ward Cemetery of descendants of Chief Fivekiller Francis Ward on former tribal land of Chief John Cornstalk Avey (b 1794). I also contacted the current Chief of the Shawnee who tells me Tuckahoe is the Wild Potato Clan. 7 year old William Brewer and a relative listed only as Brewer - were on the 1817 Indian Census of the Arkansas Cherokee who moved here voluntarily primarily descendants of the royal families of the native americans (Cornstalks, Moytoys, Rainmakers). Jonas and Margret arrived in the 1850's. It appears that all three of Lenier's women were Shawnee with possibly one being the grand daughter of Ocnonostota, which places Jonas and Margret as the grand children of the principal Chiefs of the 20 Tribe Cherokee Confederacy who began moving here in 1790, mostly between 1817 and 1830, with many other extended family arriving between 1830 and 1850, mostly from Ohio and Wayne and Hardin Co, TN. Black Fish Cornstalk, the adopted father of Stephen and Abraham Ruddell and Tecumseh, became the Principal Chief of the Shawnee of the Confederacy after the death of his father. They began moving from the Ohio into Cape Girardeau, MO then south into the White River Valley of Arkansas, after the 1808 treaty establishing the reservation here west of the White River. The Am Rev was fought between 1776 and 1789 with the U.S. having its first president in 1789. The Principal Chiefs had allied with the British in 1730 much in the same way other countries did, ie, Lords, Ladies, Prince and Princess of Spain, would marry a German, or England, or or they married the children of John Ward, Lucy, Frances, Bryant and cousin Joseph to the children of the Principal chiefs and to the chiefs themselves. I am still trying to determine which grand children Lanier fathered children with... but it is clear that by Jonas and Margret chosing to move to land that was the established land of the Creek and Shawnee, under Chief John Cornstalk Avey and his uncle Chief Peter Cornstalk (b 1785), Chief Pompus of the Delaware, Chief John Black Wiley (nephew of Chief Peter, son of Black Wolf Cornstalk and Jenny Sellard Wiley), Chief Owl, etc - that they met the requirements of being Indian, part Indian, marrying Indian or having established trade in order to live where they did on the Sylamore (settled by the Creek Indian tribe of the Isyllamo in 1816) and that they were of royal lineage moving next to Absalom Rorie. Absalon's son Jody married Sarah Beaver (Beavers also on the 1817 Indian census.) My information comes from family Bibles, land patents, Civil War documents, Shawnee history, 1817 Indian census, established recognized lineage of those on the 1817 census, treaties, and intermarriages within the families - white/black (mulatto), white/indian (metis) when equal. if less than half, say 1/2 mulatto and half Shawnee then it is recorded as such in shawnee lineage. George, Solomon, Julius, Wiley ... a total of 11 I think, are listed as metis/mulatto/Shawnee - white, black and Shawnee. Now to determine who the children were and by which mothers. If you have any information on the names of all of the children and their mothers that would be of great help. It is not likely that he actually had a concubine, but rather that, she was his third wife of whom he may not have actually had a ceremony with. It is likely that she was mulatto or a 1/2 white, and 1/4 black and indian, which would have placed her at a lower ranking than the first two wives. The Shawnee (Oconostota) were polygamous. It is also likely that she is the mother of the above ref children. Tecumseh was killed in 1813, Abraham Ruddell his adopted brother was one of the first white settlers of present day Batesville, AR the oldest surviving city in the state. They were half brothers of John Jolly, Chief of the Cherokee and adopted father of Sam Houston. John Paxton Houston, his brother was the 1st clerk of Izard county which at included part of present day Stone county prior to 1873. Their cousin Martha Houston married Elias Fulks, a grandson of David Fulks, also of the royal family of the Shawnee, descended from old John Fulks and Elizabeth Kittegesta daughter of Chief Fivekiller and Tame Doe Carpenter. I am trying to establish the names of the wives of Lanier which will help facilitate correct lineage in the Shawnee. You may contact me direct at firstname.lastname@example.org
. Without understanding what was happening within our country at that time with the British, French, native Americans and colonists - it's hard to understand what happened and why so many people moved from Hardin and Wayne Co to here between 1830 and 1850. I have researched this for a very long time and have only begun to bring the Shawnee history forward from the 1700's through the Civil War. Most people have no difficulty tracing lineage back to the Civil War. I have a PhD in Social Psychology. My theory is that the birth of the Ozark culture as we know it today, found in our music, our speech, our dance, and the clannish way in which we live our lives, was birthed in the blending of the whites, blacks and indians between 1790 and 1850. The descendants of Lanier Brewer who moved here are a significant part of that history.