1883 was a bad year to be born from one point - descendants finding you on the census. Your Charles' parents were probably in Buchanan County in 1880, but it would behard to tell from the 1880 which couple would have a son named Charles three years down the pike.
The 1890 census burned.
The 1900 isn't indexed for Missouri in the ones I subscribe to.
In 1910, there is one Greer in Buchanan County old enough to have fathererd a son in 1883:
Greer, George L., head, age 55, b. Ohio, both parents b. Ireland
----, Lizzie, wife, 50, Arkansas, Penn, Virginia
He doesn't have any children with him, however.
It looks a lot like this is the second marriage for both - the "marital status" column has what looks like "M2" to me - and they have been married for 16 years.
There is a Charles Greer in the 1910 index for Buchanan County, but he was born in 1872, not 1883.
Sorry I couldn't do more.