KENNELLY, MARGUERITE AMY, was born in New York City. Her father, Bryan Laurence Kennelly, was a son of William Kennelly, a native of County Tipperary, Ireland, who located in New York City in 1843. His mother was a Nagle of County Cork, of a family allied to that of Edmund Burke, whose mother's maiden name was Nagle. An ancestor, James Nagle, was Secretary for Ireland under James II. Bryan L. Kennelly married, in America, Elizabeth Waterhouse. Her grandfather, Oscar Hoyt, was descended from a colonist of that name who settled in Massachusetts during the seventeenth century.
Miss Kennelly attended Miss Spence's school, in New York City, where she completed the course in May, 1914. Upon the entrance of the United States into the World War Miss Kennelly went to France, and there joined the motor corps of the American Fund for French wounded. In the Spring of 1918, in Paris, she was detailed to drive a camionette, reporting at the Gare du Nord for the transportation of cases that were being cared for by the Red Cross. In June she was detailed to deliver hospital supplies in or near Paris, and from there, in October, was transferred to Nancy and Lunéville. The following narrative from her pen gives a vivid account of a few of the incidents that occurred during her service:
"The week beginning March 25, 1918, was a busy one for all of us. With the offensive starting and the big Bertha going for all she was worth, the people of Paris just held their breath wondering what was coming next. The atmosphere was indescribably tense. Holy Saturday and Easter Sunday were as still as death. About the middle of the week, the Red Cross asked us (American Fund for French Wounded) if we would help with the clothing and transportation of the refugees. The Gare du Nord, where the refugees arrived from the devastated regions, was one of the busiest places in all Paris those days. As soon as the refugees came off the trains, they were taken down to the cave or cellar of the station, where they were given food first of all, and then clothing. The cave is about the length of a city block, with the canteen and the vestaire in one corner and a double row of beds and a long table occupying the remaining space. The place was the scene of many a tragedy; babies were born there, old and young died there, and if the walls could speak they could tell of all the hardships these people suffered. Their courage was wonderful, and I scarcely ever heard them complain. I was detailed to drive a camionette for the transportation of the old and sick refugees to hospitals and stations whence they were sent to relatives and friends in the south of France. One of the worst cases I remember was transporting a woman from Arras who had both her legs cut off. She had just come from burying her husband when an obus struck the house and something fell on her, cutting off both legs. From the agony she was in, I gather [p.154] their flight was made almost immediately after the disaster. This much of the story was told me, between sobs, by her daughter, a girl of about my own age, who had come all the way from Arras with her mother. She said she was the only daughter, and had two brothers at the front. The gendarmes carried the woman out on a stretcher, and laid her at full length in the camion, while her daughter sat in front, beside me. I had to crawl all the way to the station as every little jar caused fresh suffering. Later I carried two old ladies to different stations, one of whom had all her wordly possessions wrapped in a handkerchief. She had never been out of her town before, and felt absolutely lost. She told me what good wages she had earned at home, and how happy and contented she had been, and when I left her at the station she kissed me on both cheeks in true French fashion. Another poor soul, who looked to be about eighty and did not seem to have all her wits about her, I transported the same day. She did not have a person in the world to go to, and I took her to one of our stations where such people were taken care of and sent out to a large camp somewhere south of Paris. All the way over to the station, she kept groaning, 'Oh Mon Dieu, how much further must I go, and what is to become of me!' The saddest case I had was that of a Flemish woman, eighty-two years old, who was put in our charge to take to the Belgian foyer. I say 'our,' because that morning my little French friend, Mlle. D'Envers, came along with me. She had lived in Belgium and spoke some Flemish, fortunately, as this old woman did not speak a word of French. I was afraid she would die before we reached our destination. All her papers of identification were stolen, and the people she lived with had gone off and left her. The English camp came to the rescue and carried her off in a motor. We left her at one of the stations to be sent off to a hospital in the country, and much to her relief a Belgian soldier took charge of her at the station. There were many other very sad cases, but these were the ones that made the most vivid impressions.
"The middle of June, our counter-offensive started and after that we had very few refugees, so the Fund decided to withdraw the camionette from the Gare du Nord. For a short time I delivered supplies to the different hospitals in Paris and its environs; then in the early part of October I was sent to Nancy and Lunéville to drive for the disspensaries up there. Most of the French doctors in the country towns were militarized, leaving the civilians without any relief in case of illness. At first the A.R.C. took over this work and established dispensaries all through the Toul sector, and when they withdrew the civilian relief the Fund carried on the work with the assistance of the Red Cross doctors. While there were not many cases of serious illness throughout this section of the country, we found that the dispensaries did much for the hygiene and morals of the peasants. They were very fond of the Americans, had great confidence in the doctors, and would do just as they were told. Lunéville was only eight miles from the front, and about three weeks before the Armistice was signed we saw the preparations for the great offensive that was to have started there, had the Germans refused to come to terms. Trainload after trainload of supplies passed through the town, and a steady stream of camions filled the roads on their way to the front lines. We knew that something big was about to happen, but absolute secrecy was maintained by both the soldiers and the officials. It was not until after the eleventh that we learned that the attack would have started the following morning, and Foch, himself would have directed it and made Lunéville his headquarters. On the day of the eleventh, we had a wonderful celebration and went right up to the front line trenches on the shell swept road to Bathlemont, and saw the monument erected to the first American boys who fell in the war, in 1917. As we went along the road we saw the shell holes just freshly made, probably a few [p.155] days previous. We also saw the graves of our boys, and while we were there skyrockets fell just in front of us; it was a beautiful sight to see the whole country lighted up for miles around. A few days after the Armistice, the first English prisoners drifted through the lines; I say drifted because the prisoners told us that the German guard had run away before delivering them to the French guard, leaving them to shift for themselves without a particle of food or any idea as to where they were going. Many of them got lost in the barbed wire, and others fell by the way. Those that finally reached us were in a dreadful condition; their clothing was in rags, not having been changed since they were taken prisoners in April; their eyes were sunken in their heads; yet in all their misery they marched down the street singing Keep the Home Fires Burning.
"Our dispensary was big enough to be used as a small hospital, and we took many of them in for the night. The doctor gave up his clinics and devoted all his time to the prisoners, who were sadly in need of attention. They had had practically nothing to eat but hard bread and barley water, so at first few of them could retain any food. A number of them were brought to the house unconscious, and I remember one man who remained in this condition for three days, They told of the hardships in the German prisons and the cruel treatment of the guards. If any of the German civilians threw them food to eat and they refused to tell who gave it to them, they were starved for thirty-six hours and often whipped, while the civilian who threw the food was imprisoned. We helped the foyer de soldat feed the prisoners and finally the English aviation camp near us heard that they were there and sent two camions full of food for Doctor Percy to distribute to the men. About 1,500 came through in one week, and were sent from Lunéville to a camp in Nancy, and from there straight through to Calais and England."
Upon her return from France in December, 1918, Miss Kennelly joined the Red Cross Motor Corps, and helped in New York City in the transportation of the wounded and the casual officers. Before she devoted all her attention to war services, Miss Kennelly was active in the Parish work of St. Patrick's Cathedral, and for two years was President of the Cathedral Girls' Club.
PUTNAM, RUTH, author, daughter of George Palmer and Victorine (Haven) Putnam, was born in Yonkers, New York, in 1858. She is descended from John Putnam, of Penn, Buckshire, England, who came in 1634 to Plymouth and later settled at Danvers, Massachusetts. She is a sister of George Haven Putnam and John Bishop Putnam (1848-1915), the publishers, of Mary Putnam Jacobi, and of Herbert Putnam. She was educated at home until she was fifteen years of age, attended Miss Anna C. Brackett's school, New York City, for two years, and was then a student at Cornell University, from which she was graduated with the degree of A.B. in 1878. From 1899 to 1909 she was an alumnae trustee of Cornell University. After her graduation she was for a term at Geneva, Switzerland, and also studied at Paris, Oxford, and Leyden Universities. For a year she was at Hanover and Göttingen, Germany, and at intervals has spent many months in France. Miss Putnam's works are mainly historical. She is the author of William the Silent (two volumes, 1895) Annetje Jan's Farm (1896), A Mediaeval Princess, the life of Jacqueline of Bavaria, Countess of Holland, Zeeland and Hainault (1904), Charles the Bold (1907), The Dutch Element in the United States (1909), William the Silent (in the Hero Series, 1912), Alsace and Lorraine (1915), The Name of California (1916), and Luxemburg and Her Neighbors (1918). She is also the author of Half-Moon Papers, the translator of part of Block's History of the Netherland People, and she has written many articles for magazines. The summer of 1919 Miss Putnam spent in the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, where she [p.156] had an opportunity to see the structure of a small state, and to watch the efforts of the government to break loose from German influence and to become an independent state albeit there were only 260,000 inhabitants. The result of her observation is embodied in a supplement to Luxemburg and Her Neighbors. Miss Putnam is a member of the Women's University Club, New York, the Society of Dutch Letters, Leyden, and the Hispanic Society, New York.
FITZ SIMONS, ELLEN FRENCH (Mrs. Paul Fitz Simons), was born in New York City. Her father, Francis O. French, was graduated at Harvard University in 1857 and studied at the Harvard Law School. In 1865 he was a member of the banking firm of Foote and French, in Boston, Massachusetts. He removed in 1870 to New York where he became the principal owner and a director of the First National Bank. He was a son of the Honorable Benjamin Brown French of Washington, District of Columbia, whose mother was a sister of the Reverend Francis Brown, D.D., president of Dartmouth College.
Benjamin French married Elizabeth, the daughter of the Honorable William M. Richardson, Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of New Hampshire. She was born in Chester, New Hampshire, and died in Washington.
The French family traces descent from Edward French, one of the founders of Ipswich, Massachusetts, who came from England in 1636. Francis O. French married Ellen Tuck, who was born in Hampton, New Hampshire, April 4, 1838. Her first American ancestor was Robert Tuck, who came from Gorlston, Norfolk, England, in 1636, and, in 1638, was one of the grantees of Hampton, New Hampshire, where he held many town offices. His son, Edward Tuck, was born in England and married Mary, the daughter of Thomas Philbrick. He died April 6, 1652. His son, Deacon John Tuck (1651-1742), married January 9, 1678, Bethia Hobbs. He owned a large estate with two mills and held town offices. His son, Jonathan Tuck (1697-1781), married Tabitha Towle. He was chosen to succeed his father as church deacon and was twice a member of the General Assembly. He was an influential and well-informed man, distinguished for his geographical knowledge. His son, Jonathan Tuck, Junior (1736-1780), married second, Huldah Moulton. Their son, John Tuck (1780-1847), married Betsy Towle, and their son, Amos Tuck, who was born August 2, 1810, at Parsonsfield, Maine, graduated from Dartmouth College in 1835, thereafter practised law in New Hampshire, and was a member of Congress from New Hampshire for two terms. He married Sarah Anne Nudd and they were the parents of Ellen (Tuck) French.
Ellen French was educated principally in Europe, under private tutors and governesses. She was married, first, in January, 1901, to A.G. Vanderbilt of New York, son of Cornelius Vanderbilt; and they were the parents of one son, William H. Vanderbilt, who was born in New York, November, 1901. She was married, second, in April, 1919, to Lieutenant-Paul Fitz Simons, U. S. N., the son of Paul Fitz Simons of South Carolina. In 1920 Lieutenant Fitz Simons was a member of the American Naval Commission which reorganized the Peruvian Navy.
In the autumn of 1916 Mrs. Fitz Simons was one of the organizers, and served as vice-chairman of, the Newport Chapter of the Red Cross, and was the head of its Department of Military and Naval Relief. From the opening of the Young Women's Christian Association Hostess House at the Naval Training Station at Newport, she acted as chairman, a position which brought her into touch with the women enlisted as yeoman and the families of sailors in training at the station. After peace was declared this work was not continued. In 1917 Mr. Daniels, Secretary of the Navy, appointed Mrs. Fitz Simons a member of a committee to act in an [p.157] advisory capacity to the War Council of the American Red Cross upon navy matters.
Mrs. Fitz Simons is a member of the National Institute of Social Sciences which, in 1919, awarded her its Patriotic Service Medal. She is also a member of the French Institute, the Colony Club, and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, of New York.
BOND, CARRIE JACOBS (Mrs. Frank L. Bond), composer and publisher, daughter of Hannibal and Emma (Davis) Jacobs, was born in Janesville, Wisconsin, August 11, 1863. She was educated in the public schools and high schools, of Janesville, and in Beloit College. On June 12, 1887, she was married at Racine, Wisconsin, to Frank Lewis Bond. For several years the two lived a healthy, vigorous life in the logging camps of northern Wisconsin; but soon after the birth of their only child, Frederick, Doctor Bond died and the young wife was left penniless. She moved to Chicago and there supported herself and her little son by sewing for friends, and doing china painting at odd moments. The women in whose homes she worked heard her singing songs of love and laughter, of sorrow and solace, and were amazed to find that she herself had composed and set them to music, but that none had been published. She had not had a thorough musical education, although she had taken a few music lessons when a young girl and the piano was a pastime to her. But with the appreciative encouragement of friends, the idea developed that people everywhere are the same at heart, and that it is the simple things of life, the things about which she sang, that appeal to rich and poor alike. Her songs expressed her philosophy of life and helped her over hard places. Their inspiration had been found first among the pine, hemlock, and cedar trees, when she lived close to nature in the logging and mining camps, and among people who displayed primitive emotions; then, with her baby in her arms, came the making of lullabies and the songs that have a heart-break in them. Just a Wearyin' for You, Parting, and Shadows had been the expression of her emotion at the death of her young husband. Thus she came to believe that her songs would appeal to the home-loving thoughtful American men and women and she began to submit them to publishers. She met, at first, with much discouragement and suffered from misplaced confidence. To one firm she sold eleven songs for $35. The immediate response of the public amazed the publisher. Her popularity increased in England as well as in the United States and music houses were soon eagerly demanding her work. Mrs. Bond, however, became more and more unwilling to deliver the children of her brain and heart into the hands of strangers and in 1901 she established a business for herself as The Bond Shop to publish her own compositions. This "business" consisted at first of one small room, and until her son was old enough to become a partner in the business she was office girl, editor, publisher, and printer's devil. She not only wrote the words and music for songs, but designed and painted the covers as well. The business prospered until in 1921 the Carrie Jacobs-Bond and Son publishing house is one of the largest music publishing houses of the Middle West and is known from Chicago to the Antipodes. The entire plant is most interesting and it is a marvel how one brain could have created such a comprehensive and splendid organization. Mrs. Bond has composed more than six hundred songs, of which A Perfect Day is easily the most popular. It is heard in every part of the world where music is played and sung. During the World War Mrs. Bond received many letters from boys "over there" telling her what this song had meant to them,?that it was sung at camp concerts and in hospitals, in the trenches and on the march. Its sales have run into millions of copies. Although Mrs. Bond writes primarily for simple folk, singers of high rank have found her songs among their most successful offerings. Her work has been translated into twenty-six languages and arrangements [p.158] of them have been made for almost every known instrument including the one-stringed fiddle of the Serbs, and the wailing bagpipes of the Scots. Mrs. Bond's concerts are not in the manner of a professional as her voice is not strictly a singing voice but is more adapted to recitative; but when she talks her songs or half sings them, there is a joyousness or a note of pathos that would have made her famous as an actress. Mrs. Bond spends much of her time in Los Angeles, where she has a house perched against the Hollywood Hills. It is designed to express the ideas and ideals of its owner and she calls it "The End of the Road." Her success, won in the face of hardships and discouragements, points out to beginners with latent genius a road to achievement through faith in self and one's own ideas. Mrs. Bond's gifts are originality and charm and there are few of the commonplaces of life that she has not made beautiful.
BOOTH, ELIZABETH KNOX (Mrs. Sherman M. Booth), suffragist, daughter of Samuel Gordon and Vena Crutchfield (Young) Knox, was born in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Her father was the great-grandson of William Knox, Jr., of Fredericksburg, Virginia, and his wife, Susannah Fitzhugh, the former being the son of William Knox of Renfrew, Scotland, who settled in Culpepper County, Virginia, about 1790, where he named his estate Windsor Lodge. After attending the elementary grades in the Cedar Rapids public schools and the preparatory department of Coe College, Cedar Rapids, Elizabeth Knox was graduated from Cedar Rapids High School in 1800. She then entered the academic department of Coe College, where she was a member of the Sinclair Literary Society. She received the degree of Ph.B. in 1903. During the next four years she taught English, two years in the Osage, Iowa, High School, and one each in the Bellevue, Iowa, High School and the Ida Grove, Iowa, High School. On June 29, 1907, she was married in Grace Episcopal Chapel, Cedar Rapids, to Sherman M. Booth, an attorney of Glencoe, Illinois. Here she has since made her home. They have three children, Knox, Sherman M. and Elizabeth Booth.
Mrs. Booth is a member of the Woman's Library Club of Glencoe, one of the earliest of women's clubs, and of the Women's College Club of Washington, District of Columbia. In 1912 she organized the Glencoe Equal Suffrage Association and was its first president. At the convention of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association, held at Galesburg, Illinois, October 1 and 2, 1912, she was elected head of the Legislative Department of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association for the following year. After inaugurating and perfecting the card-index system of cataloguing legislators, she went to Springfield, Illinois, on January 8, 1913, at the opening of the session of the 48th General Assembly. She remained here throughout every working day of the session. After becoming acquainted with every member of the House and Senate, she catalogued them in the following form:?l. name, residence, business address, 'phone number, occupation; 2. district, party; 3. affiliation?wet or dry, boss, newspaper obligation; 4. religion, type, wife, prominent suffragist in her home district; 5 Suffrage pledge, legislative record, suffrage record; 6. remarks. This card, when completed, told, first, whether the legislator was for or against suffrage, or noncommittal. If for, his card either corroborated the fact, or cast suspicion on his promise. If against, his card told whether there was a possibility of converting him. If noncommittal, his card told what chance there might be of winning him to the cause. Those in favor of suffrage were consulted and enlisted to help, while those unalterably opposed, whose cards gave no promise, and whose districts were opposed, were left alone, and thus their antagonism was not aroused. The great bulk of the work was done on the noncommittal legislators. The State Suffrage organizations coöperated and completed the organization of suffragists in the State districts, [p.159] and, wherever it seemed necessary, pressure was brought to bear on a legislator. The cataloguing and organization were accompanied by the strictest watch on legislative procedure, and the bill for presidential and municipal suffrage was piloted through the intricacies of committees, hearings, first, second, and third readings, debates, filibuster, transfer from one house to the other, and, finally, to Governor Dunne's signature. The liquor interests were very active in opposing the measure. The Chicago newspapers became sympathetic and supported the cause. Every possible influence?newspapers, churches, anti-saloon league, all sorts of women's organizations, and prominent individuals?was brought to bear throughout the State, until final victory was achieved when the Governor signed the bill, on June 26, 1913, in the presence of the "Suffrage Lobby" after speeches on both sides. The following winter, 1913-1914, Mrs. Booth spent in Washington, District of Columbia, as a member of the Congressional Committee of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, of which Mrs. Medill McCormick was chairman. Mrs. Booth has since remained at home, occupied with the care of her household at Glencoe, Illinois.
BROWN, OLIVE MARIE McINTOSH (Mrs. Edwin Hewitt Brown), daughter of Henry Payne and Olive Ann (Manfull) McIntosh, was born in Cleveland, Ohio, August 22, 1883. She is descended from Alexander McIntosh, who came to Cleveland from Scotland in 1825. After graduating from Miss Mittleberger's school in Cleveland in 1901, she attended for a year Mrs. Sommers' school in Washington, District of Columbia, and spent another year in Paris, France, as a pupil in Miss Grace Lee Hess' school. On November 6, 1907, she was married in Cleveland to Edwin Hewitt Brown of the General Aluminum and Brass Manufacturing Company of Detroit, Michigan. Mr. and Mrs. Brown have their home at Grosse Pointe, a suburb of Detroit, and are the parents of three children: Olive Anne, Ellanore, and McIntosh. Mrs. Brown has worked actively in support of the charities of the Episcopal Church. She is a director of the Needlework Guild and Secretary of the St. Agnes Home of Detroit, and has been interested in the Children's Free Hospital, the District Nursing Society, and the Grosse Pointe Mutual Aid Society. She is a member of the Detroit Symphony Society, the Detroit Orchestral Association, the Detroit Opera Association, the Morning Music Club, and the Chamber Music Society, and also of the Garden Club of Michigan. During the World War she worked in a Red Cross canteen and served with the rank of Major in the canteen of the Army and Navy Club of Detroit.
BURLINGAME, LILLIAN M., Physician, daughter of Alvah W. Burlingame, whose earliest ancestor came from England to Rhode Island in 1634, and Angeline I. Chichester, was born in Brooklyn, New York. She was educated at Packer Collegiate Institute, Brooklyn, and at the New York Medical College and Hospital for Women, where she received the degree of M.D., with honors, and the senior prize in surgery. For a time she was Visiting Physician at the New York Medical College and Hospital Dispensary, the Memorial Dispensary for Women, and the Eastern District Hospital Dispensary. She was first a lecturer, and afterwards Associate Professor of Gynecology at the New York Medical College and Hospital for Women, an examiner in lunacy, and a lecturer on medical and nursing topics under the New York Board of Education. She is a member of the Alumnae Association of the New York Medical College, the Women's Medical Club of New York, and the Society of New England Women (Colony No. 8, Brooklyn).
CANDEE, HELEN CHURCHILL, author, was born in New York City, October 5, 1868. She is a daughter of Henry Hungerford, a [p.160] descendant of Benjamin Hungerford, who came from England to Connecticut in 1640, and of Mary E. Churchill, descended from Elder William Brewster, who came to Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620. She was educated in private schools in New Haven and Norwalk, Connecticut, and was married, in Norwalk, to Edward W. Candee. Her travels in America, Europe, and the Far East have been extensive, and she was one of the survivors of the Titanic when that ship foundered on April 15, 1912. She has contributed many stories and essays to magazines, is on the editorial staff of Arts and Decoration, New York, and is the author of An Oklahoma Romance (1900), Susan Truslow (1901), How Women May Earn a Living (1902), Styles and Periods in Furniture and Decoration (1904), The Tapestry Book (1910), and Jacobean Furniture (1916). For her services in Italy during the World War she was decorated by the Royal Italian Red Cross and she has since been engaged in work on post-war help for ex-service men. She is a member of the Archaeological Society and the National Federation of Arts.
CHANNON, VESTA MILLER WESTOVER (Mrs. Harry Channon), daughter of George Frederic and Elizabeth Quackenbush (Miller) Westover, was born in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin. The Westovers are an old Virginia family. Among her mother's ancestors were John Miller (1644) of Easthampton, Long Island, a founder of Elizabeth, New Jersey; Daniel MacLaren of Edinburgh, Scotland, who came to New York in 1800; and, in the Woodruff family of New Jersey, Judge Thomas Woodruff of Elizabeth, who aided the cause of American independence and who was descended from Thomas Woodrove (1508-1552) through John Woodruffe (1604-1670) of Fordwich, England, a founder in 1639 of Southampton, Long Island. Mrs Channon is a graduate of Grant's Seminary, Chicago, Illinois. She also studied with private tutors in Chicago and New York and has followed special courses at the University of Chicago and at the Sorbonne, Paris. Her marriage to Harry Channon, a merchant of Chicago, took place on August 1, 1893, at St. George's Church, Hanover Square, London. Their son, Henry Channon, 3d, was born in Chicago, March 7, 1897, and, during the World War, served with the American Red Cross in Paris from October, 1917, to October. 1918, acting as buyer for the purchasing department, and, later being attached for several months to the American Embassy in Paris. Mrs. Channon's interests have always been especially in French literature, on which she has written club papers, and from which she has made many translations, In 1905 she founded the French library of the Alliance Francaise of Chicago, and has since served as chairman of the committee and directrice of the library. In connection with her work she has organized many fêtes for French charities, and in 1907 she was made an Officier d'Académie by the French government. She was chairman of the French booth in the Streets of Paris Fête, Chicago, and of the Red Cross booth in the Bazaar of the Allies, Chicago, in 1917. She spent 1918 in France, occupied with war relief work, chiefly organization and statistics, although it included some immediate personal work among refugees. She also made trips to the devastated districts of France in the interests of the French Red Cross, and, in Chicago, acted as chairman of the French Red Cross Committee, Allied Relief, Women's Division of the Illinois Branch of the Council of National Defense. She was a member of the Woman's War Relief Corps of the American Red Cross. Mrs. Channon is a member of the Chicago Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution; the Colonial Daughters of the Seventeenth Century, New York; the Lycéum Club, Paris; and the Chicago Women's, Cordon, Arts, Woman's Athletic, Chicago College, and Chicago Library Clubs of Chicago.[p.161]
GIBBS, WINIFRED STUART, economist, daughter of George Holman and Catherine Stuart (Karmes)Gibbs, was born in New York City, October 6, 1871. Her father was born in England and came to the United States in 1846. She was educated in the Chicago, Illinois, high schools, under private tutors, and at the University of Rochester, New York, the Rochester Atheneum, and the Mechanics Institute of Rochester from which she received a diploma in 1901. She is a pioneer in applying the principles of home economics to the problems of social science and social economics. In 1906 she founded, and for ten years directed, the home economics work of the New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor. As a result of this work, the New York Child Welfare Board fixed certain tentative standards for its widows' pension work. Miss Gibbs instituted the training of students in home economics at Teachers College, Columbia University, to correlate their specialty with social service, and has acted as advisor for similar work in Providence, Rhode Island, Boston, Massachusetts, Chicago, Illinois, St. Louis, Missouri, and elsewhere. In 1909 she was a delegate to the Congress on Home Education at Brussels, Belgium. In June, 1918, the National War Labor Board called her in conference to assist in determining certain facts as to the essentials of living, and in 1919 she was in charge of the nation-wide thrift work of the Federal government, carried on through the States Relation Service of the United States Departm
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