I know you have the 1920 Census, I didn't and needed additional information on Claude. The 1920 Census for Dubois, Clark Co, ID
Palmer, Edward F, 47(1872/1873), born Missouri
Ella L, 42 (1877/1878), born Missouri
Claude E, "bound to us when a child" (appears to be "bound"). 22 (circa 1897/1898) Born in New York to both parents born in England. Salesman/ Department (Store?).
--The household above had a Ruth Palmer, age 26, born in Idaho to both parents born in Ireland. Is this a coincidence?
The 1920 Census shows Claude E, as 22, enumerated 9 January.
The 1910 Census shows Claude E, as 13, enumerated 19/20 April. Living in Caldwell, Missouri.
--So between the two census ages, it "appears" he was born sometime between 9 January and 18 April in 1897.
There is also a Claude Elmer Palmer, born 4 Dec 1900, born in Idaho to both parents born in Indiana. Parents, Elmer P, and Rose L. Family in Latah Co. ID. He died 11 Jan 1988 at Grants Pass, Oregon.
The Bureau of Land Management http://www.glorecords.blm.gov/
has a database of land patents issued under the Homestead Act: http://www.legendsofamerica.com/AH-Homestead.html
It shows Edward F Palmer obtaining land in Clark (1920) and Jefferson County (1938). It also shows Claude E Palmer obtaining land in Clark County on 2/15/1923.
For Edwards: Click on the Search Land Patents in the Green block. Next Window: Enter your zipcode. Next Window: Enter Idaho, Palmer, Edward.
--Click on his name for Clark County. It shows he obtained 160 acres on January 8, 1920 (The day before the Census). Click on the Legal Land Description tab, you'll see it is in Township 9-North, Range 33-E, Section 34, the SE Quarter of that section. A section has 640 acres. It was 28 kilometers SW of Dubois.
For Claude's: On 2/15/1923, he obtained 160 acres in Township 13-N, Range 37-East, Section 18. But, it doesn't show where in the Section the land was located. It was located about 202 meters from Palmer Springs, named after him? It was 11 kilometers (6.8 miles) north of Spencer, ID, north of Dubois.
--"IF" he was living there during the 1930 census, he might have been missed by the enumerator as it is in the "boonies." The census did show 226, enumerated by Helen Wood.
If you do not know where this land was located, let me know and I'll explain how to find it via the Internet. For Claudes, the topo map does show the location of Palmer Springs, but doesn't show the Sections or numbers in that area. But at only 202 meters, he lived VERY close to them.
Based on the land patent data, Edward was in the area until 1938, Claude until 1923. Because Claude's land patent was only 202 meters from the Palmer Springs, it was "possibly" named for him. Because he held the name of Palmer from 1910 until 1923, I doubt he changed back to Tomlinson, BUT, that has to be proven. Because Edward had land near Dubois and Claude near Spencer, I would direct your attention to Clark County first. The county came into being in Feb 1919, land taken from Fremont. So, earlier records "might" be in Fremont County.
Cemeteries. There are cemeteries, of course, in Clark County: http://clark.idgenweb.org/Cemeteries/cemeteries.htm
But, not transcribed online, perhaps not transcribed at all.
does have the Spencer and Dubois cemeteries listed, but nothing for Palmer. But, I would look at the listing and where there is a photo (identified by "RIP" near the name), I'd look at who took the photo. Most in Spencer was the same person. This person might have the names, or more information about the area. I'd email or contact Peggy Shupinghttp://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=cr&CRid=41...
--The 1920 Census for Brookfield, Linn County, Missouri has a Claud B. Tomlinson, working as a hired hand for Roy/Ray Lambert. He was 23 (1896/1897). Family data shows his birth July 1897 in Linn County, died 1955 in Linn County.
--The Claude E. Tomlinson, born 10 Oct 1896 was born in Mississippi and living there when he registered for the WWI Draft Registration.
Neither is the correct person.
> "The last proven information we have are letters he wrote describing farmwork "
--Were the letters written by Edward or Claude?
As you can see by the lists of postings on this board, it isn't frequented often. HOPEFULLY someone in the area will see your posting and help.