Hi Margaret ...
Getting back to one of your original queries, there's a James and Martha PAINE on the 1851 census. He's a book-keeper, aged 50 and born in Jamaica, West Indies. She was born in Sutton Courtney and is aged 48. Also with them is their son George E. PAINE, aged 7 and born in St. Aldate's, Oxford. (Probable that the elder children had already left home and George was a bit of an "after-thought"?)
The same three individuals also appear on the 1861 census, when James is a Hotel Porter (born in the West Indies).
If you were to purchase George's birth certificate, then this would confirm if his mother was a SNOW. FreeBMD has a birth recorded in Dec 1843 in Oxford for a George Edwin PAINE.