I have run a couple of census searches and I have gotten result such as this one.
Name: Warwick M Sousley
Relationship to Head of Household:
Residence: Camp Elliott, Canal Zone, Panama, Military and Naval Forces
Marital Status: Married
Race : White
Father's Birthplace: United States
Mother's Birthplace: United States
Page Number: 5
If you have an ancestry. com subscription look under the States selecion and you will find Military and Naval Forces. This includes only overseas soldiers. You can search on Familysearch.org and it will have a transcription of the census info, but no image. Those who were stationed in the US would be listed in the state they were serving in.