There are autosomal SNPS as well as Y SNPS. The former mark deep ancestry inherited from both sides, the latter only from the father. The SNPs used for deep ancestry analysis are called Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). These have been found in studies by population geneticists to be correlated with various population groups and thus generally revealing of ethnicity.
Haplotypes are something different. They are patterns of a different kind of marker called short tandem repeat (STR) and can be used to predict a haplogroup, that is a population group that is characterized by a certain SNP mutation.
I know this is complex, so maybe an example would help. Based on my Y haplotype, Family Tree DNA predicted that I would be part of haplogroup R1B1. When I did deeper testing with FTDNA and National Geographic Geno 2.0 I found that I am part of a haplogroup characterized by a mutation on SNP Z49. This is a subgroup of R1B1A2A1A1B3C, which is correlated with a proto-Celtic group that arose in Central Europe about 2000 BC.
This is a different analysis than my autosomal testing which, based on my pattern of AIMs, showed that my inherited ancestry is entirely European and, depending on the particular admixture (ethnicity) calculator employed, contains elements from various parts of Europe in differing proportions. By comparing those proportions to those from individuals who trace their ancestry to particular parts of Europe, we can make an educated guess that I am most similar to people from the British Isles, Germany, Scandinavia and Northern France, which is close to my documented family history.
Reaching these conclusions is a challenge. I'm going to start a new thread about setting goals and choosing tests to meet them.