The 1930 census does not have information regarding year of immigration. That info is present in 1910 and 1920. Not sure what you are looking for in any census that would help you discriminate among the many Shermans. And- if a woman from Russia arrived with the intention of marrying Mr. Sherman I expect her to have come under her maiden name.
You may be overstating the case regarding Jewish immigration to the US being effectively closed sometime in 1924. Ancestry shows 230,000 Jews coming in to NY in the four year period prior to 1924, and about 20% of that number arriving in the four year period after 1924. I would say Jewish immigration was substantially reduced not closed.