Thanks, Donalyn, I've received no notification of your reply here. The Davids are well documented in France, back to the mists of the Medieval era. They may HAVE been Dowen to begin with. I have Julien in 1175 so far, in the Rouen area, with Dinet and Matel associated. The surprise: I recently began work on my Dear One's bunch, and am finding a slew of Levis, etc, "Black Dutch" and so on - I bet they came from Spain and Portugal. They just "pop up" here in the USA, associated, oddly, with the Quakers and Dunkards. I am having a h____ of a time with them.